Agriculture
Growing Healthier Tomato Plants
Seeds of the Future
Getting the dirt on carbon
Amphibians
Salamanders and Newts
Frogs and Toads
Newts
Animals
Roach Love Songs
Life on the Down Low
Thieves of a Feather
Behavior
Wired for Math
Puberty gone wild
World’s largest lizard is venomous too
Birds
Parrots
Chicken
Ospreys
Chemistry and Materials
Boosting Fuel Cells
The Buzz about Caffeine
The metal detector in your mouth
Computers
Games with a Purpose
It's a Small E-mail World After All
Play for Science
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Digging Dinos
Fossil Fly from Antarctica
Ferocious Growth Spurts
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Getting the dirt on carbon
Weird, new ant
Drilling Deep for Fuel
Environment
The Wolf and the Cow
Groundwater and the Water Cycle
Bald Eagles Forever
Finding the Past
Stone Tablet May Solve Maya Mystery
Unearthing Ancient Astronomy
Traces of Ancient Campfires
Fish
Whale Sharks
Electric Ray
Sturgeons
Food and Nutrition
Chocolate Rules
The Color of Health
How Super Are Superfruits?
GSAT English Rules
Whoever vs. Whomever
Pronouns
Subject and Verb Agreement
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT Mathematics
Math and our number sense: PassGSAT.com
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
Math Naturals
Human Body
Sea Kids See Clearly Underwater
What the appendix is good for
A Long Trek to Asia
Invertebrates
Crabs
Flies
Oysters
Mammals
Prairie Dogs
African Hippopotamus
Cheetah
Parents
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Children and Media
Physics
Black Hole Journey
Strange Universe: The Stuff of Darkness
Speedy stars
Plants
Underwater Jungles
Hungry bug seeks hot meal
Assembling the Tree of Life
Reptiles
Pythons
Cobras
Copperhead Snakes
Space and Astronomy
Super Star Cluster in the Neighborhood
Cousin Earth
No Fat Stars
Technology and Engineering
Switchable Lenses Improve Vision
Roll-Up Computer Monitors to Go
A Micro-Dose of Your Own Medicine
The Parts of Speech
Problems with Prepositions
Pronouns
Adjectives and Adverbs
Transportation
Where rivers run uphill
Robots on a Rocky Road
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Weather
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Recipe for a Hurricane
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
Add your Article

Woolly Mammoths

A mammoth is any of a number of an extinct genus of elephant, often with long curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived during the Pleistocene epoch from 1.6 million years ago to around 3,500 years ago. The word mammoth comes from the Russian мамонт ("mamont"). Mini-mammoth: It is a common misconception that mammoths were much larger than modern elephants, an error that has led to "mammoth" being used as an adjective meaning "very big". Certainly, the largest known species, the Imperial Mammoth of California, reached heights of at least 4 meters (13 feet) at the shoulder. Mammoths would probably weigh in the region of 6-8 tons. However, most species of mammoth were only about as large as a modern Asian Elephant, and fossils of a species of dwarf mammoth have been found on Wrangel Island off the east coast of Siberia as well as the Californian channel islands (M. exilis) and some Mediterranean Islands. Not Your Average Elephant: Mammoths had a number of adaptations to the cold, most famously the thick layer of shaggy hair, up to 50 cm (20 in) long, for which the Woolly mammoth is named. They also had far smaller ears than modern elephants; the largest mammoth ear found so far was only a foot (30 cm) long, compared to six feet (1.8 m) for an African elephant. They had a flap of hairy skin which covered the anus, keeping out the cold. Adaptations to Environment: Their teeth were also adapted to their diet of coarse tundra grasses, with more plates and a higher crown than their southern relatives. Their skin was no thicker than that of present-day elephants, but unlike elephants they had numerous sebaceous glands in their skin which secreted greasy fat into their hair, improving its insulating qualities. They had a layer of fat up to 8 cm (3 in) thick under the skin which, like the blubber of whales, helped to keep them warm. Terrifying Tusks: Mammoths had extremely long tusks - up to 16 feet (5 m) long - which were markedly curved, to a much greater extent than those of elephants. It is not clear whether the tusks were a specific adaptation to their environment, but it has been suggested that mammoths may have used their tusks as shovels to clear snow from the ground and reach the vegetation buried below. Mammoth Evolution: Mammoth remains have been found in Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America. They are believed to have originally evolved in North Africa about 4.8 million years ago, where bones of Mammuthus africanavus have been found in Chad, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia. Asian or African? Despite their African ancestry, they are in fact more closely related to the modern Asian elephant than either of the two African elephants. The common ancestor of both mammoths and Asian elephants split from the line of African elephants about 6 - 7.3 million years ago. The Asian elephants and mammoths diverged about half a million years later (5.5 - 6.3 million years ago). In due course the African mammoth migrated north to Europe and gave rise to a new species, the southern mammoth (Mammuthus meridionalis). This eventually spread across Europe and Asia and crossed the now-submerged Bering Land Bridge into North America. The Beginning of the End: Around 700,000 years ago, the warm climate of the time deteriorated markedly and the savannah plains of Europe, Asia and North America gave way to colder and less fertile steppes. The southern mammoth consequently declined, being replaced across most of its territory by the cold-adapted steppe mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii). This in turn gave rise to the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius) around 300,000 years ago. Woolly mammoths were better able to cope with the extreme cold of the Ice Ages. One Successful Species: The woollies were a spectacularly successful species; they ranged from Spain to North America and are thought to have existed in huge numbers. The Russian researcher Sergei Zimov estimates that during the last Ice Age, parts of Siberia may have had an average population density of sixty animals per hundred square kilometers --equivalent to African elephants today. Rumor Mill: There have been occasional claims that the mammoth is not actually extinct, and that small isolated herds might survive in the vast and sparsely inhabited tundra of the northern hemisphere. In the late nineteenth century, there were, according to Bengt Sjögren (1962), persistent rumors about surviving mammoths hiding in Alaska. In October 1899, a story about a man named Henry Tukeman detailed him having killed a mammoth in Alaska and that he subsequently donated the specimen to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.. But the museum denied the existence of any mammoth corpse and the story turned out to be a hoax. Sjögren (1962) believes the myth got started when the American biologist C.H. Townsend traveled in Alaska, saw Eskimos trading mammoth tusks, asked if there still were living mammoths in Alaska and provided them with a drawing of the animal. Sightings Galore: In the 19th century, several reports of "large shaggy beasts" were passed on to the Russian authorities by Siberian tribesman, but no scientific proof ever surfaced. A French charge d´affaires working in Vladivostok, M. Gallon, claimed in 1946 that in 1920 he met a Russian fur-trapper that claimed to have seen living giant, furry "elephants" deep into the taiga. Gallon added that the fur-trapper didn't even know about mammoths before, and that he talked about the mammoths as a forest-animal at a time when they were seen as living on the tundra and snow. There was an alleged Soviet Air Force sighting during World War II, but this was not verified by a second sighting.

Woolly Mammoths
Woolly Mammoths








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™