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Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
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Animals
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A Tongue and a Half
Behavior
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A Global Warming Flap
The Other Side of the Zoo Fence
Birds
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Swifts
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Chemistry and Materials
Cold, colder and coldest ice
Undercover Detectives
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Supersonic Splash
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Earth
Earth's Lowly Rumble
Life under Ice
Challenging the Forces of Nature
Environment
A Change in Climate
Pumping Up Poison Ivy
Alien Invasions
Finding the Past
Sahara Cemetery
Ancient Art on the Rocks
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
Fish
Bull Sharks
Dogfish
Skates and Rays
Food and Nutrition
Sponges' secret weapon
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Turning to Sweets, Fats to Calm the Brain
GSAT English Rules
Pronouns
Whoever vs. Whomever
Who vs. That vs. Which
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Human Body
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Walking to Exercise the Brain
Invertebrates
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Ticks
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Mammals
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German Shepherds
African Camels
Parents
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Physics
The Pressure of Scuba Diving
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Plants
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Sweet, Sticky Science
Reptiles
Caimans
Turtles
Crocodilians
Space and Astronomy
A Puffy Planetary Puzzle
No Fat Stars
A Galaxy Far, Far, Far Away
Technology and Engineering
A Micro-Dose of Your Own Medicine
Searching for Alien Life
Slip Sliming Away
The Parts of Speech
Pronouns
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Transportation
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Troubles with Hubble
How to Fly Like a Bat
Weather
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Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Watering the Air
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Who vs. That vs. Which

Rule 1

Who refers to people. That and which refer to groups or things.

Examples:
Anya is the one who rescued the bird.
Lokua is on the team that won first place. 
She belongs to an organization that specializes in saving endangered species.

Rule 2

That introduces essential clauses while which introduces nonessential clauses.

Examples:
I do not trust products that claim "all natural ingredients" because this phrase can mean almost anything.
We would not know which products were being discussed without the that clause.
The product claiming "all natural ingredients," which appeared in the Sunday newspaper, is on sale.
The product is already identified. Therefore, which begins a nonessential clause.

NOTE: Essential clauses do not have commas surrounding them while nonessential clauses are surrounded by commas.

Rule 3

If this, that, these, or those has already introduced an essential clause, you may use which to introduce the next clause, whether it is essential or nonessential.

Examples:
That is a decision which you must live with for the rest of your life.
Those ideas, which we've discussed thoroughly enough, do not need to be addressed again.

NOTE: Often, you can streamline your sentence by leaving out which.

Example:
That is a decision which you must live with for the rest of your life.

Better:
That is a decision you must live with for the rest of your life.

 

Who vs. That vs. Which









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