Chicken Eggs as Drug Factories
Growing Healthier Tomato Plants
Where Have All the Bees Gone?
Poison Dart Frogs
Tree Frogs
Sleepless at Sea
Navigating by the Light of the Moon
Polly Shouldn't Get a Cracker
Mice sense each other's fear
From dipping to fishing
Math Naturals
Chemistry and Materials
Nanomagnets Corral Oil
Sticky Silky Feet
The metal detector in your mouth
Supersonic Splash
Music of the Future
Fingerprint Evidence
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Mammals in the Shadow of Dinosaurs
Ferocious Growth Spurts
Dinosaur Eggs-citement
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Coral Gardens
Groundwater and the Water Cycle
A Volcano Wakes Up
When Fungi and Algae Marry
Shrinking Fish
City Trees Beat Country Trees
Finding the Past
A Long Haul
Ancient Cave Behavior
Stone Age Sole Survivors
Freshwater Fish
Food and Nutrition
Yummy bugs
Symbols from the Stone Age
Chocolate Rules
GSAT English Rules
Order of Adjectives
Adjectives and Adverbs
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT Mathematics
Detecting True Art
Play for Science
It's a Math World for Animals
Human Body
The tell-tale bacteria
Attacking Asthma
Remembering Facts and Feelings
Sea Urchin
Miniature Schnauzers
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Road Bumps
Gaining a Swift Lift
Black Hole Journey
Springing forward
Cactus Goo for Clean Water
Fast-flying fungal spores
Garter Snakes
Space and Astronomy
Mercury's magnetic twisters
An Earthlike Planet
A Great Ball of Fire
Technology and Engineering
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
Supersuits for Superheroes
Squeezing Oil from Old Wells
The Parts of Speech
Adjectives and Adverbs
What is a Verb?
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Charged cars that would charge
Where rivers run uphill
Robots on the Road, Again
Arctic Melt
Catching Some Rays
Earth's Poles in Peril
Add your Article


Wasp is the common name applied to most species of hymenopteran insects, except bees and ants. Insects known as wasps include the sawflies, the parasitic wasps, and the stinging wasps, which are the best known. About 75,000 species of wasps have been identified, most of them parasitic. Wasps are characterized by two pairs of membranous wings and an ovipositor (tube for laying eggs) that may be modified in various ways. In some species one sex may be wingless. Most stinging wasps are predators or scavengers; their ovipositors may be modified to inject venom used for killing prey or for defense. No place to call home: Unlike social wasps, sawflies and parasitic wasps are free-living; that is, they do not build nests. After depositing their eggs on a host plant or animal, the adult wasps fly off in search of food for themselves or more hosts for their larvae. The eggs are left to develop and hatch on their own. Stinging wasps tend to live in hives and societies similar to bees and ants. Various homes: The stinging wasps rely on a nest from which they conduct many of their activities, especially rearing young. Wasp nests may be as simple as a straight burrow in the ground, while others, such as those of mud daubers and potter wasps, are above ground, constructed of mud cavities attached to twigs, rocks, or human structures. The simplest mud nests contain only one or a few larval cells and are not used by the adults. Other mud nests contain many cells arranged side by side. Among the most intricate nests are those made of paper fibers collected from dry wood and bark and mixed with the wasps' saliva. The vespoid wasps (yellow jackets, hornets, and paper wasps) build nests of this type. In each paper-fiber nest there are one or more combs, or densely packed arrays of cells for larva. The adults may congregate on the combs, and some nests have an outer cover, forming a protective refuge for the whole colony. This is the familiar "hornet's nest" that may house hundreds or thousands of individuals. An important link in the chain: Wasps are highly important to ecosystems. Sawflies consume vegetation and so limit plant growth. Most other wasps are either parasitic or predaceous and therefore play a vital role in limiting the populations of thousands of other insect species. All wasps are eaten by other species, thereby providing many links in the food web. Many parasitic wasps have been cultured and used in the biological control of agricultural pests. Although a few of the stinging wasps are considered nuisances, they also provide benefits. Yellow jackets and paper wasps, for example, prey on caterpillars and other larvae that can destroy crops. Some wasps feed on flower nectar and play a role in pollination. Dangerous females: All female stinging wasps can defend themselves and their nests by using their ovipositor to inject venom. Males do not have a stinger. No species will attack a human except in defense. If the colonies of some yellow-jacket and hornet species are disturbed, they may respond by releasing more than 100 defending wasps, each capable of delivering several stings. The nests of these species should be left alone or removed professionally if they are considered a nuisance. Wasp venom contains factors that release histamine, which dissolves red blood cells. Most people can survive many stings, responding with only temporary pain and swelling, but to hyperallergic individuals--about 1 percent of the population--a single wasp sting can be fatal.


Designed and Powered by™