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New Gene Fights Potato Blight
Watering the Air
Keeping Bugs Away from Food
Amphibians
Frogs and Toads
Bullfrogs
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Sleep Affects a Bird's Singing
Polly Shouldn't Get a Cracker
Lucky Survival for Black Cats
Behavior
Homework blues
The nerve of one animal
Monkeys in the Mirror
Birds
Hummingbirds
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Chemistry and Materials
Toxic Dirt + Avian Flu = Science Fair Success
Graphene's superstrength
The memory of a material
Computers
Fingerprint Evidence
Galaxies far, far, far away
Hubble trouble doubled
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Downsized Dinosaurs
Fossil Forests
Dino-bite!
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Earth
Earth Rocks On
Detecting an Eerie Sea Glow
Recipe for a Hurricane
Environment
Ready, unplug, drive
Whale Watch
The Birds are Falling
Finding the Past
Salt and Early Civilization
Little People Cause Big Surprise
Meet your mysterious relative
Fish
Swordfish
Puffer Fish
Barracudas
Food and Nutrition
A Pepper Part that Burns Fat
The Color of Health
Strong Bones for Life
GSAT English Rules
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Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Mathematics
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
Setting a Prime Number Record
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
Human Body
Heart Revival
Kids now getting 'adult' disease
Electricity's Spark of Life
Invertebrates
Jellyfish
Ants
Octopuses
Mammals
Armadillo
Opposum
Great Danes
Parents
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Children and Media
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Physics
Speedy stars
Road Bumps
The Particle Zoo
Plants
Tracking the Sun Improves Plant Pollen
Pumping Up Poison Ivy
A Giant Flower's New Family
Reptiles
Rattlesnakes
Pythons
Anacondas
Space and Astronomy
Zooming In on the Wild Sun
Asteroid Lost and Found
A Very Distant Planet Says "Cheese"
Technology and Engineering
Crime Lab
Squeezing Oil from Old Wells
Riding Sunlight
The Parts of Speech
Adjectives and Adverbs
Pronouns
What is a Preposition?
Transportation
Revving Up Green Machines
Troubles with Hubble
Flying the Hyper Skies
Weather
Where rivers run uphill
Watering the Air
In Antarctica watch the heat (and your step)
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Underwater Jungles

Thick forests of brown algae, called kelp, cling to the seafloor in cold waters throughout the world. There are about 100 kinds, including giant kelp, which stretch as high as 30 meters (100 feet). Kelp forests support a diversity of creatures, including fish, otters, crabs, and urchins. Scientists have known that scattered bits of kelp grow in the warm tropics in places where cold water wells up from below. Now, an international team of researchers has used worldwide ocean studies to predict and find tropical locations where whole forests of kelp grow. The team recently found kelp forests in deep waters off the Galápagos Islands, about 600 miles west of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. What's more, a new computer model predicts that there may be many more of these rich ecosystems in tropical waters around the globe. The model has identified 23,500 square kilometers (9,075 square miles) of tropical ocean hideouts where kelp might be growing. Kelp lives in chilly places because there's extra nitrogen available in cold water that seeps up from ocean's bottom. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for the algae. Kelp also needs sunlight to grow. Michael Graham of Moss Landing (Calif.) Marine Laboratories and colleagues used recently compiled data about the oceans to look for spots that might meet these conditions. Their model predicted that kelp would grow in all the tropical spots where it had previously been collected. But the team's model also predicted that kelp would be found in an area of the Philippines that almost nobody knew about. The area was mentioned in an old paper—written in Russian—that reported a few kelp specimens in that part of the Philippines. One scientist involved in the new study knew about that spot, but he kept the knowledge secret until after the model had predicted it. In the Galápagos, Graham and colleagues also explored places where the model had predicted kelp forests might grow. The expedition had a rocky start. The first robotic, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that went underwater came off the line that connected it to the surface. The second ROV, which went down to look for the first one, had an electrical malfunction and lost its ability to "see". So, the scientists had to explore by scuba diving instead. During their first dive, they hit the jackpot. Graham reports that, "I went down, cleared my mask, and there was kelp right in front of me." They found abundant kelp in eight places around the Galápagos. Along with other work, researchers say, the new study points out how much they still have to learn about ecosystems that live in the ocean's depths.—Emily Sohn

Underwater Jungles
Underwater Jungles








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