Where Have All the Bees Gone?
Middle school science adventures
Seeds of the Future
Salamanders and Newts
Tree Frogs
Tool Use Comes Naturally to Crows
A Fallout Feast for Crabs
Puberty gone wild
Hitting the redo button on evolution
Fear Matters
Chemistry and Materials
Music of the Future
Small but WISE
Atom Hauler
Games with a Purpose
Computers with Attitude
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Dinosaurs and Fossils
South America's sticky tar pits
Fossil Fly from Antarctica
Three strikes wiped out woolly mammoths
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2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Polar Ice Feels the Heat
Life trapped under a glacier
Coral Islands Survive a Tsunami
The Birds are Falling
The Wolf and the Cow
Food Web Woes
Finding the Past
A Human Migration Fueled by Dung?
Prehistoric Trips to the Dentist
Preserving Ancient Warrior Paint
Food and Nutrition
Making good, brown fat
The Essence of Celery
Chocolate Rules
GSAT English Rules
Capitalization Rules
Subject and Verb Agreement
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GSAT Scholarship
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT Exam Preparation
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT Mathematics
Secrets of an Ancient Computer
Losing with Heads or Tails
Detecting True Art
Human Body
Smiles Turn Away Colds
Electricity's Spark of Life
Sun Screen
Siberian Husky
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
How children learn
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Powering Ball Lightning
Gaining a Swift Lift
IceCube Science
Pumping Up Poison Ivy
Bright Blooms That Glow
Fastest Plant on Earth
Space and Astronomy
Black Holes That Burp
Rover Makes Splash on Mars
Slip-sliding away
Technology and Engineering
Weaving with Light
Supersuits for Superheroes
A Satellite of Your Own
The Parts of Speech
What is a Verb?
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
What is a Noun
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Robots on a Rocky Road
Middle school science adventures
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Where rivers run uphill
A Change in Climate
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Underwater Jungles

Thick forests of brown algae, called kelp, cling to the seafloor in cold waters throughout the world. There are about 100 kinds, including giant kelp, which stretch as high as 30 meters (100 feet). Kelp forests support a diversity of creatures, including fish, otters, crabs, and urchins. Scientists have known that scattered bits of kelp grow in the warm tropics in places where cold water wells up from below. Now, an international team of researchers has used worldwide ocean studies to predict and find tropical locations where whole forests of kelp grow. The team recently found kelp forests in deep waters off the Galápagos Islands, about 600 miles west of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. What's more, a new computer model predicts that there may be many more of these rich ecosystems in tropical waters around the globe. The model has identified 23,500 square kilometers (9,075 square miles) of tropical ocean hideouts where kelp might be growing. Kelp lives in chilly places because there's extra nitrogen available in cold water that seeps up from ocean's bottom. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for the algae. Kelp also needs sunlight to grow. Michael Graham of Moss Landing (Calif.) Marine Laboratories and colleagues used recently compiled data about the oceans to look for spots that might meet these conditions. Their model predicted that kelp would grow in all the tropical spots where it had previously been collected. But the team's model also predicted that kelp would be found in an area of the Philippines that almost nobody knew about. The area was mentioned in an old paper—written in Russian—that reported a few kelp specimens in that part of the Philippines. One scientist involved in the new study knew about that spot, but he kept the knowledge secret until after the model had predicted it. In the Galápagos, Graham and colleagues also explored places where the model had predicted kelp forests might grow. The expedition had a rocky start. The first robotic, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that went underwater came off the line that connected it to the surface. The second ROV, which went down to look for the first one, had an electrical malfunction and lost its ability to "see". So, the scientists had to explore by scuba diving instead. During their first dive, they hit the jackpot. Graham reports that, "I went down, cleared my mask, and there was kelp right in front of me." They found abundant kelp in eight places around the Galápagos. Along with other work, researchers say, the new study points out how much they still have to learn about ecosystems that live in the ocean's depths.—Emily Sohn

Underwater Jungles
Underwater Jungles

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