Agriculture
Keeping Bugs Away from Food
Got Milk? How?
Protecting Cows—and People—from a Deadly Disease
Amphibians
Poison Dart Frogs
Newts
Salamanders
Animals
Gliders in the Family
Spotting the World's Leggiest Animal
Odor-Chasing Penguins
Behavior
Hitting the redo button on evolution
Fighting fat with fat
Why Cats Nap and Whales Snooze
Birds
Ducks
Birds We Eat
Flightless Birds
Chemistry and Materials
Picture the Smell
Earth-Friendly Fabrics
Diamond Glow
Computers
Troubles with Hubble
New twists for phantom limbs
The hungry blob at the edge of the universe
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Mini T. rex
Dino Babies
Meet your mysterious relative
E Learning Jamaica
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Ancient Heights
Unnatural Disasters
Pollution at the ends of the Earth
Environment
When Fungi and Algae Marry
City Trees Beat Country Trees
A Newspaper's Hidden Cost
Finding the Past
Chicken of the Sea
The Puzzle of Ancient Mariners
Early Maya Writing
Fish
Skates and Rays
Halibut
Seahorses
Food and Nutrition
In Search of the Perfect French Fry
Chew for Health
A Taste for Cheese
GSAT English Rules
Order of Adjectives
Problems with Prepositions
Who vs. Whom
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
Ministry of Education Announces 82 GSAT Scholarships for 2010
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Mathematics
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Monkeys Count
Deep-space dancers
Human Body
Surviving Olympic Heat
Heart Revival
Cell Phones and Possible Health Hazards
Invertebrates
Krill
Cockroaches
Octopuses
Mammals
Sheep
Cats
Dolphins
Parents
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Children and Media
Physics
Project Music
The Mirror Universe of Antimatter
Dreams of Floating in Space
Plants
Fastest Plant on Earth
Fast-flying fungal spores
Plants Travel Wind Highways
Reptiles
Asp
Komodo Dragons
Turtles
Space and Astronomy
A Planet's Slim-Fast Plan
Holes in Martian moon mystery
Asteroid Lost and Found
Technology and Engineering
Reach for the Sky
Weaving with Light
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
The Parts of Speech
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
What is a Noun
Pronouns
Transportation
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
Robots on a Rocky Road
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Weather
Recipe for a Hurricane
Where rivers run uphill
Arctic Melt
Add your Article

Training Your Brain to Feel Less Pain

Your brain controls your body, and your body affects your brain. Now, scientists have found a way to turn the system upside down. With practice, a new study suggests, people can use their minds to change the way their brains affect their bodies. In particular, by watching activity in a brain scan, people can train their brains to process pain differently and reduce the amount of pain that they feel. The researchers worked with 32 healthy volunteers, ages 18 to 37. To begin with, volunteers received a heat pulse to their legs. The heat pulses could vary in intensity. On a scale from one to 10 (with 10 being "the worst pain imaginable"), they had to report when the intensity of the pain that they felt was higher than 7. Using a brain-scanning machine called an fMRI scanner, the scientists were able to see that this level of pain sparked a lot of activity in a part of the brain called the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Next, eight of the volunteers went through brain training. Scientists hooked them up to machines that allowed them to see what was going on in their own rostral anterior cingulate cortexes. An image of a flame grew when there was a lot of activity there and shrank when there was less. After 39 minutes of practice, the researchers found, volunteers were able to control the size of the flame and, hence, their pain levels, even with the same intensity of heat on their legs. Mental exercises, such as thinking about something besides the pain, seemed to help. The other 24 volunteers were also told to try to change the activity level in their rostral anterior cingulate cortexes, but they didn't get to see what was happening there. Sometimes, they were able to see brain activity in other parts of their brains or brain activity in other people's brains. Without direct feedback, though, they were unable to change the level of activity in the correct part of the brain or the amount of pain that they felt from the heat. In the final stages of their study, the scientists gave this type of brain training to eight people who suffer from chronic pain, which means they have recurring pain much of the time that gets in the way of their lives. By the end of the experiment, all of the patients reported feeling less pain when activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex went down. Chronic-pain patients who practiced doing other types of feedback didn't gain the same benefits. Scientists have been struggling to understand pain for a long time. This new research might help improve the lives of people who have to live with it.—E. Sohn

Training Your Brain to Feel Less Pain
Training Your Brain to Feel Less Pain








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™