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Where Have All the Bees Gone?
Springing forward
Cleaning Up Fish Farms
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Newts
Toads
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Glimpses of a Legendary Woodpecker
Vampire Bats on the Run
Ants on Stilts
Behavior
Wake Up, Sleepy Gene
Supersonic Splash
The chemistry of sleeplessness
Birds
Albatrosses
Seagulls
A Meal Plan for Birds
Chemistry and Materials
Bandages that could bite back
Atomic Drive
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Computers
The Earth-bound asteroid scientists saw coming
Toxic Dirt + Avian Flu = Science Fair Success
Galaxies on the go
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Did Dinosaurs Do Handstands?
From Mammoth to Modern Elephant
The bug that may have killed a dinosaur
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Earth
Coral Islands Survive a Tsunami
Less Mixing Can Affect Lake's Ecosystem
Groundwater and the Water Cycle
Environment
A Change in Leaf Color
Pumping Up Poison Ivy
A Change in Time
Finding the Past
Big Woman of the Distant Past
Traces of Ancient Campfires
Of Lice and Old Clothes
Fish
Hammerhead Sharks
Angler Fish
Tiger Sharks
Food and Nutrition
Yummy bugs
Making good, brown fat
The Color of Health
GSAT English Rules
Capitalization Rules
Who vs. That vs. Which
Finding Subjects and Verbs
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GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
The Annual GSAT Scholarships
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GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Exam Preparation
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT Mathematics
Math Naturals
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
Deep-space dancers
Human Body
A Sour Taste in Your Mouth
Remembering Facts and Feelings
Smiles Turn Away Colds
Invertebrates
Lobsters
Cockroaches
Roundworms
Mammals
Chimpanzees
Opposum
Walrus
Parents
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Physics
Gaining a Swift Lift
Echoes of a Stretched Egg
Speedy stars
Plants
Plants Travel Wind Highways
Making the most of a meal
The algae invasion
Reptiles
Black Mamba
Rattlesnakes
Box Turtles
Space and Astronomy
An Icy Blob of Fluff
Solving a Sedna Mystery
A Family in Space
Technology and Engineering
Spinach Power for Solar Cells
Roll-Up Computer Monitors to Go
Searching for Alien Life
The Parts of Speech
Adjectives and Adverbs
Pronouns
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
Revving Up Green Machines
Middle school science adventures
Weather
Recipe for a Hurricane
Catching Some Rays
Where rivers run uphill
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The Particle Zoo

Particles are the building blocks of matter, and matter makes up everything you can see. The Earth and moon are matter. So is your body, your computer’s screen, even the air you breathe. Which means they’re all made of particles. Particles are the building blocks of matter, and matter makes up everything you can see. The Earth and moon are matter. So is your body, your computer’s screen, even the air you breathe. Which means they’re all made of particles. Lots and lots of particles, of all different kinds, stuck together. Atoms, which used to be considered the smallest unit of matter, are made from particles too. Just how small is an atom? That’s a tricky question, since different atoms have different sizes and atoms are mostly empty space. But here’s one way to think about it: Let’s say you wanted to fill up a baseball-sized bowl with gold atoms. You’d need roughly twice as many of these atoms as it would take to fill an Earth-sized bowl with baseballs. Particles that are even smaller than an atom are called “subatomic.” The main subatomic particles that make up atoms are protons, electrons and neutrons. But some of these particles are also made of even smaller particles. Protons and neutrons, for example, are made of subatomic particles called “quarks.” There are six kinds of quarks, each with a weird name: up, down, strange, charm, top and bottom. Dozens of types of subatomic particle exist, and scientists suspect there may be still more to discover. When a new type emerges, scientists tend to give them pretty odd-sounding names. To date, we’ve got bosons, fermions, leptons, muons, pions, neutrinos, photons, gluons, and gravitons. Neutrinos are unusually weird because they have almost no mass and they fly through space at almost the speed of light. Three types exist: muon neutrinos, electron neutrinos and tau neutrinos. And the strangest particle of all: the tachyon. It’s considered “hypothetical,” which means it might not even exist. If it does, it can go faster than the speed of light and travel back in time. No wonder some physicists refer to these — the smallest inhabitants of our universe — as their “particle zoo.”

The Particle Zoo
The Particle Zoo








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