Agriculture
Fast-flying fungal spores
Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
Watering the Air
Amphibians
Tree Frogs
Toads
Poison Dart Frogs
Animals
Glimpses of a Legendary Woodpecker
Who's Knocking?
A Seabird's Endless Summer
Behavior
Talking with Hands
Meet your mysterious relative
Lightening Your Mood
Birds
Turkeys
Peafowl
A Meal Plan for Birds
Chemistry and Materials
Fog Buster
Spinning Clay into Cotton
Graphene's superstrength
Computers
It's a Small E-mail World After All
Earth from the inside out
Look into My Eyes
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Ferocious Growth Spurts
Fingerprinting Fossils
An Ancient Feathered Biplane
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Earth
Salty, Old and, Perhaps, a Sign of Early Life
Getting the dirt on carbon
Earth from the inside out
Environment
Groundwater and the Water Cycle
Out in the Cold
Eating Up Foul Sewage Smells
Finding the Past
Chicken of the Sea
Unearthing Ancient Astronomy
A Big Discovery about Little People
Fish
Tiger Sharks
Goldfish
Halibut
Food and Nutrition
The Essence of Celery
Chocolate Rules
Strong Bones for Life
GSAT English Rules
Finding Subjects and Verbs
Order of Adjectives
Pronouns
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GSAT Mathematics
Prime Time for Cicadas
Math of the World
Detecting True Art
Human Body
Running with Sneaker Science
Foul Play?
Heavy Sleep
Invertebrates
Snails
Corals
Walking Sticks
Mammals
Dachshunds
Chipmunks
Bonobos
Parents
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Physics
Extra Strings for New Sounds
Invisibility Ring
Electric Backpack
Plants
Hungry bug seeks hot meal
White fuzzy mold not as friendly as it looks
City Trees Beat Country Trees
Reptiles
Reptiles
Alligators
Tortoises
Space and Astronomy
Black Holes That Burp
A Puffy Planetary Puzzle
Cousin Earth
Technology and Engineering
Model Plane Flies the Atlantic
A Micro-Dose of Your Own Medicine
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
The Parts of Speech
Adjectives and Adverbs
What is a Preposition?
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Robots on a Rocky Road
Robots on the Road, Again
Ready, unplug, drive
Weather
A Change in Climate
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
Where rivers run uphill
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The Particle Zoo

Particles are the building blocks of matter, and matter makes up everything you can see. The Earth and moon are matter. So is your body, your computer’s screen, even the air you breathe. Which means they’re all made of particles. Particles are the building blocks of matter, and matter makes up everything you can see. The Earth and moon are matter. So is your body, your computer’s screen, even the air you breathe. Which means they’re all made of particles. Lots and lots of particles, of all different kinds, stuck together. Atoms, which used to be considered the smallest unit of matter, are made from particles too. Just how small is an atom? That’s a tricky question, since different atoms have different sizes and atoms are mostly empty space. But here’s one way to think about it: Let’s say you wanted to fill up a baseball-sized bowl with gold atoms. You’d need roughly twice as many of these atoms as it would take to fill an Earth-sized bowl with baseballs. Particles that are even smaller than an atom are called “subatomic.” The main subatomic particles that make up atoms are protons, electrons and neutrons. But some of these particles are also made of even smaller particles. Protons and neutrons, for example, are made of subatomic particles called “quarks.” There are six kinds of quarks, each with a weird name: up, down, strange, charm, top and bottom. Dozens of types of subatomic particle exist, and scientists suspect there may be still more to discover. When a new type emerges, scientists tend to give them pretty odd-sounding names. To date, we’ve got bosons, fermions, leptons, muons, pions, neutrinos, photons, gluons, and gravitons. Neutrinos are unusually weird because they have almost no mass and they fly through space at almost the speed of light. Three types exist: muon neutrinos, electron neutrinos and tau neutrinos. And the strangest particle of all: the tachyon. It’s considered “hypothetical,” which means it might not even exist. If it does, it can go faster than the speed of light and travel back in time. No wonder some physicists refer to these — the smallest inhabitants of our universe — as their “particle zoo.”

The Particle Zoo
The Particle Zoo








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