Agriculture
Springing forward
Fast-flying fungal spores
Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
Amphibians
Toads
Newts
Bullfrogs
Animals
G-Tunes with a Message
Tool Use Comes Naturally to Crows
The History of Meow
Behavior
Pain Expectations
Seeing red means danger ahead
Sugar-pill medicine
Birds
Swifts
Flightless Birds
Kiwis
Chemistry and Materials
Flytrap Machine
The hottest soup in New York
Hitting the redo button on evolution
Computers
Computers with Attitude
Look into My Eyes
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Digging Dinos
Meet the new dinos
Dinosaur Eggs-citement
E Learning Jamaica
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Rodent Rubbish as an Ice-Age Thermometer
Earth's Poles in Peril
A Great Quake Coming?
Environment
Snow Traps
Toxic Cleanups Get a Microbe Boost
Lessons from a Lonely Tortoise
Finding the Past
Prehistoric Trips to the Dentist
Digging Up Stone Age Art
Childhood's Long History
Fish
Mako Sharks
Codfish
Sturgeons
Food and Nutrition
Food for Life
Making good, brown fat
Moving Good Fats from Fish to Mice
GSAT English Rules
Adjectives and Adverbs
Finding Subjects and Verbs
Order of Adjectives
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
GSAT Scholarship
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GSAT Mathematics
Detecting True Art
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
Deep-space dancers
Human Body
Prime Time for Broken Bones
Dreaming makes perfect
Flu Patrol
Invertebrates
Sponges
Flies
Mussels
Mammals
Weasels
Bears
Sloth Bears
Parents
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
How children learn
Physics
Speedy stars
Invisibility Ring
The Particle Zoo
Plants
Fastest Plant on Earth
Tracking the Sun Improves Plant Pollen
Stalking Plants by Scent
Reptiles
Black Mamba
Garter Snakes
Rattlesnakes
Space and Astronomy
Supernovas Shed Light on Dark Energy
Ready, Set, Supernova
Super Star Cluster in the Neighborhood
Technology and Engineering
Weaving with Light
Slip Sliming Away
A Clean Getaway
The Parts of Speech
What is a Noun
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Ready, unplug, drive
Revving Up Green Machines
Weather
Recipe for a Hurricane
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Warmest Year on Record
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Sun Screen

When summer comes, I get sun crazy. I like to eat on the patio and lie on the beach. I walk and bike everywhere. I even bring my work outside. Soaking up the sun feels so good—as long as I'm wearing sunscreen and a hat. When I was younger, I played in the sun without worry. Now that I'm 30, I realize how important it is to protect myself. That's because the same ultraviolet (UV) rays that make us warm and tan also harm the cells in our skin. You can't see the damage when you're young, but its effects often show up decades later. After years of tanning, the skin gets wrinkled, leathery, and, worst of all, prone to skin cancer. The disease is directly linked to UV exposure, says Mandeep Kaur. She's a dermatologist at Wake Forest University School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C. As young people flock to beaches and tanning salons, skin cancer is becoming more common and appearing at younger ages, Kaur says. "We used to see only older and middle-aged people with skin cancer," she says. "These days, we see people in their 20s or 30s." Tanning dangers Kaur and her colleagues reviewed a large number of studies about skin cancer and UV light. The disease, they found, is the most rapidly growing cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Even so, doctors rarely warn their young patients about the dangers of tanning. What your doctor should tell you is that your skin is the largest organ in your body. It keeps your stomach and other organs from spilling out. And it keeps germs from getting in. Skin allows you to feel pain, heat, cold, and other sensations. And through sweat, it rids your body of extra water and salt. Can you imagine life without it? Although our skin works hard to protect us, few people work to protect it. The sun's UV rays are the biggest threat because they damage the genetic material DNA in the cells of your skin. Damaged, or mutated, cells are supposed to kill themselves, but sun-damaged skin cells eventually become cancerous and multiply out of control. They produce abnormal growths called tumors. The tricky thing is that this process can take 30 or more years to become evident. "It's surprising how long it takes," says Meenhard Herlyn, a tumor biologist at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia. "Even if kids have big, blistering sunburns every summer, they're fine while they're kids." Skin cancer There are two categories of skin cancer. Nonmelanoma tumors develop in the outermost layer of skin. They usually appear on the head, neck, and other exposed areas. There are about 1 million new cases of nonmelanoma in the United States each year, according to the American Cancer Society. Doctors can easily remove most of these cancers if they catch them early. The second type of skin cancer is melanoma. It is less common than nonmelanoma cancer. There are only 60,000 new cases a year in this country. However, melanoma is far more likely to spread to other organs and become deadly. Melanoma affects the cells in your skin that produce pigment, or color, that makes you tan. These cells are most active when you're young, so getting sunburns during childhood puts you at especially high risk. "If you have more than five blistering sunburns while you're under 15," Herlyn says, "it increases your risk for getting melanoma three- to fivefold." All types of skin cancer occur most often in people who have red or blonde hair, freckles, or pale skin that burns easily. People with naturally dark skin rarely get skin cancer. Skin cancer treatment usually involves surgery to remove damaged cells, but new approaches are in the works. The most promising leads come from studies of internal signals that cancer cells use to stay alive. "We're slowly getting to know what makes melanoma cells tick," Herlyn says. If researchers can block the important signals with drugs, the bad cells might die. Herlyn's coworkers, for example, are working on a melanoma vaccine that would help a patient's immune system recognize and attack skin cancer cells. Other scientists are creating lotions that could help cells repair themselves. Sunning safely The best way by far to fight skin cancer is to not get it in the first place. That doesn't mean you have to stay inside all the time. You just have to learn how to be sun savvy. The American Academy of Dermatology recommends wearing sunscreen (SPF 15 or higher), sunglasses, wide-brimmed hats, long-sleeved shirts, and long pants whenever possible. Avoid direct sunlight when it's at its strongest—between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Be careful near snow, sand, and water, which create strong reflections. And avoid tanning beds. These steps may seem extreme if you live in a place where tanned skin is considered attractive. But if you want a wrinklefree, cancerfree future, it may be time to think about the cost of "beauty" that doesn't last. "If you want to be healthy," Kaur says, "you have to have good skin."

Sun Screen
Sun Screen








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