Agriculture
Watching out for vultures
Flush-Free Fertilizer
Springing forward
Amphibians
Toads
Poison Dart Frogs
Tree Frogs
Animals
Dolphin Sponge Moms
Color-Changing Bugs
Roach Love Songs
Behavior
Making Sense of Scents
A Global Warming Flap
Meet your mysterious relative
Birds
Cassowaries
Pelicans
Pheasants
Chemistry and Materials
These gems make their own way
A Diamond Polish for Ancient Tools
Batteries built by Viruses
Computers
The Earth-bound asteroid scientists saw coming
Games with a Purpose
Nonstop Robot
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Digging for Ancient DNA
Dino Bite Leaves a Tooth
Dino Babies
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Plastic-munching microbes
Hot Summers, Wild Fires
Flower family knows its roots
Environment
Missing Tigers in India
Fungus Hunt
Cactus Goo for Clean Water
Finding the Past
A Plankhouse Past
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
Salt and Early Civilization
Fish
Marlin
Saltwater Fish
Trout
Food and Nutrition
Chocolate Rules
Recipe for Health
Eat Out, Eat Smart
GSAT English Rules
Pronouns
Capitalization Rules
Who vs. That vs. Which
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT Scholarship
Ministry of Education Announces 82 GSAT Scholarships for 2010
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT Exam Preparation
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Mathematics
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
Math Naturals
A Sweet Advance in Candy Packing
Human Body
A Long Trek to Asia
Walking to Exercise the Brain
Attacking Asthma
Invertebrates
Worms
Crabs
Insects
Mammals
Kangaroos
Moose
Capybaras
Parents
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
How children learn
Physics
Powering Ball Lightning
Hold on to your stars, ladies and gentlemen
Speedy stars
Plants
Fungus Hunt
Getting the dirt on carbon
White fuzzy mold not as friendly as it looks
Reptiles
Snakes
Black Mamba
Iguanas
Space and Astronomy
A Star's Belt of Dust and Rocks
A Smashing Display
Baby Star
Technology and Engineering
Toy Challenge
Algae Motors
Bionic Bacteria
The Parts of Speech
Pronouns
What is a Verb?
Problems with Prepositions
Transportation
Robots on a Rocky Road
Middle school science adventures
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Weather
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Arctic Melt
Recipe for a Hurricane
Add your Article

Sugar-pill medicine

Feeling sick? You wouldn’t want to take fake medicine for an earache or major illness. But in some cases, the fake stuff can help. Studies have long shown that fake medicines, or placebos, can produce the same healing effect as an active drug. This phenomenon is known as the placebo effect. Placebos come in the form of sugar pills, fake creams or other substances. Medical researchers use placebos in experiments designed to test drugs. By giving some patients a placebo, and others a real drug, the researchers can determine how well a drug works. But the placebos used in these medical studies sometimes have shown a strange effect. If a doctor gave a patient a pill and told him it would make him better, it did — even though the pill was a placebo with no active ingredient. Now, scientists have figured out how placebos work their magic. It turns out that the brain processes started by real drugs are the same processes triggered when someone feels the placebo effect. Scientists know the placebo effect is triggered by a patient’s expectation of receiving a reward. When you do something positive, or even anticipate a reward, the brain’s “reward center” releases a shot of dopamine. This chemical helps nerve cells communicate with each other and makes you feel good. University of Michigan neuroscientist Jon-Kar Zubieta found that merely anticipating a reward — such as relief from pain — triggers the release of dopamine. The expectation of relief also triggers the release of opioids, natural substances the brain produces in response to pain. Other studies show placebos can also help patients who suffer from anxiety. Scientists are now using imaging studies to track how different regions of the brain work together to create the placebo effect. Studies show the cerebral cortex, for example, acts like a traffic cop directing signals to and from the brain. Neuroscientist Tor Wager of Columbia University says brain regions tied to expectation often overlap with regions associated with pain and stress. This is because pain and stress go hand-in-hand with how a person feels. “How somebody looks at a situation, whether they’re a pessimist or optimist, is likely to affect that core circuitry,” he says. Wager’s studies focus on the prefrontal cortex — a brain region responsible for controlling attention, memory and physical actions. It’s also involved with math (especially in kids) and language. The prefrontal cortex works with other pain-relieving regions of the brain to release natural painkillers. Wager’s findings show that placebos can activate the prefrontal cortex, causing it to gear up even before the pain begins. Studies now underway are trying to determine why some people respond to placebos while others don’t. Other studies are needed to better understand how placebos work in the brain. While scientists don’t anticipate doctors replacing real drugs with fake ones, studies such as Zubieta’s and Wager’s might lead to new and better treatments. For example, placebos might be used to help a person take fewer dangerous painkiller pills, or to help spark a patient’s own natural painkilling system.

Sugar-pill medicine
Sugar-pill medicine








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™