Agriculture
Middle school science adventures
Protecting Cows—and People—from a Deadly Disease
Flush-Free Fertilizer
Amphibians
Newts
Poison Dart Frogs
Frogs and Toads
Animals
A Meal Plan for Birds
Sea Lilies on the Run
Moss Echoes of Hunting
Behavior
Longer lives for wild elephants
Primate Memory Showdown
Meet your mysterious relative
Birds
Eagles
Hawks
Geese
Chemistry and Materials
Watching out for vultures
The newest superheavy in town
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Computers
Graphene's superstrength
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Programming with Alice
Dinosaurs and Fossils
The Paleontologist and the Three Dinosaurs
Dino Bite Leaves a Tooth
Fossil Fly from Antarctica
E Learning Jamaica
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Drilling Deep for Fuel
Earth's Poles in Peril
Deep History
Environment
Power of the Wind
What is groundwater
Snow Traps
Finding the Past
Sahara Cemetery
Childhood's Long History
Settling the Americas
Fish
Seahorses
Tiger Sharks
Perches
Food and Nutrition
The Color of Health
Yummy bugs
The mercury in that tuna
GSAT English Rules
Problems with Prepositions
Subject and Verb Agreement
Adjectives and Adverbs
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
Ministry of Education Announces 82 GSAT Scholarships for 2010
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Exam Preparation
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT Mathematics
Losing with Heads or Tails
Math and our number sense: PassGSAT.com
Secrets of an Ancient Computer
Human Body
Spit Power
A Fix for Injured Knees
The tell-tale bacteria
Invertebrates
Flatworms
Ants
Earthworms
Mammals
African Leopards
Boxers
Dolphins
Parents
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
How children learn
Physics
Black Hole Journey
Extra Strings for New Sounds
Road Bumps
Plants
Flower family knows its roots
Springing forward
Fungus Hunt
Reptiles
Komodo Dragons
Cobras
Crocodiles
Space and Astronomy
Killers from Outer Space
A Family in Space
Gravity Tractor as Asteroid Mover
Technology and Engineering
Squeezing Oil from Old Wells
Space Umbrellas to Shield Earth
Shape Shifting
The Parts of Speech
Problems with Prepositions
Pronouns
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Robots on the Road, Again
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Flying the Hyper Skies
Weather
Where rivers run uphill
The solar system's biggest junkyard
A Change in Climate
Add your Article

Sugar-pill medicine

Feeling sick? You wouldn’t want to take fake medicine for an earache or major illness. But in some cases, the fake stuff can help. Studies have long shown that fake medicines, or placebos, can produce the same healing effect as an active drug. This phenomenon is known as the placebo effect. Placebos come in the form of sugar pills, fake creams or other substances. Medical researchers use placebos in experiments designed to test drugs. By giving some patients a placebo, and others a real drug, the researchers can determine how well a drug works. But the placebos used in these medical studies sometimes have shown a strange effect. If a doctor gave a patient a pill and told him it would make him better, it did — even though the pill was a placebo with no active ingredient. Now, scientists have figured out how placebos work their magic. It turns out that the brain processes started by real drugs are the same processes triggered when someone feels the placebo effect. Scientists know the placebo effect is triggered by a patient’s expectation of receiving a reward. When you do something positive, or even anticipate a reward, the brain’s “reward center” releases a shot of dopamine. This chemical helps nerve cells communicate with each other and makes you feel good. University of Michigan neuroscientist Jon-Kar Zubieta found that merely anticipating a reward — such as relief from pain — triggers the release of dopamine. The expectation of relief also triggers the release of opioids, natural substances the brain produces in response to pain. Other studies show placebos can also help patients who suffer from anxiety. Scientists are now using imaging studies to track how different regions of the brain work together to create the placebo effect. Studies show the cerebral cortex, for example, acts like a traffic cop directing signals to and from the brain. Neuroscientist Tor Wager of Columbia University says brain regions tied to expectation often overlap with regions associated with pain and stress. This is because pain and stress go hand-in-hand with how a person feels. “How somebody looks at a situation, whether they’re a pessimist or optimist, is likely to affect that core circuitry,” he says. Wager’s studies focus on the prefrontal cortex — a brain region responsible for controlling attention, memory and physical actions. It’s also involved with math (especially in kids) and language. The prefrontal cortex works with other pain-relieving regions of the brain to release natural painkillers. Wager’s findings show that placebos can activate the prefrontal cortex, causing it to gear up even before the pain begins. Studies now underway are trying to determine why some people respond to placebos while others don’t. Other studies are needed to better understand how placebos work in the brain. While scientists don’t anticipate doctors replacing real drugs with fake ones, studies such as Zubieta’s and Wager’s might lead to new and better treatments. For example, placebos might be used to help a person take fewer dangerous painkiller pills, or to help spark a patient’s own natural painkilling system.

Sugar-pill medicine
Sugar-pill medicine








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™