Agriculture
Where Have All the Bees Gone?
Growing Healthier Tomato Plants
Microbes at the Gas Pump
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Frogs and Toads
Salamanders
Animals
Ultrasonic Frogs Raise the Pitch
Baboons Listen for Who's Tops
A Sense of Danger
Behavior
Contemplating thought
Between a rock and a wet place
Fish needs see-through head
Birds
Quails
Falcons
Mockingbirds
Chemistry and Materials
Bang, Sparkle, Burst, and Boom
Spinning Clay into Cotton
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Computers
Look into My Eyes
Middle school science adventures
Electronic Paper Turns a Page
Dinosaurs and Fossils
An Ancient Feathered Biplane
Hall of Dinos
Dino-Dining Dinosaurs
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Shrinking Glaciers
Petrified Lightning
Coral Islands Survive a Tsunami
Environment
A Change in Climate
The Best Defense Is a Good Snow Fence
To Catch a Dragonfly
Finding the Past
Of Lice and Old Clothes
A Long Trek to Asia
Unearthing Ancient Astronomy
Fish
A Grim Future for Some Killer Whales
Manta Rays
Eels
Food and Nutrition
Eat Out, Eat Smart
A Taste for Cheese
Strong Bones for Life
GSAT English Rules
Order of Adjectives
Capitalization Rules
Subject and Verb Agreement
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Exam Preparation
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Exam Preparation
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT Mathematics
Math of the World
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
Losing with Heads or Tails
Human Body
The tell-tale bacteria
Sleeping Soundly for a Longer Life
Remembering Facts and Feelings
Invertebrates
Clams
Black Widow spiders
Flies
Mammals
Moose
Mule
Vampire Bats
Parents
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Children and Media
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Physics
Powering Ball Lightning
The Mirror Universe of Antimatter
Road Bumps
Plants
When Fungi and Algae Marry
Making the most of a meal
A Change in Leaf Color
Reptiles
Snapping Turtles
Lizards
Chameleons
Space and Astronomy
Ready, Set, Supernova
Asteroid Moons
A Dusty Birthplace
Technology and Engineering
Young Scientists Take Flight
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
A Micro-Dose of Your Own Medicine
The Parts of Speech
Adjectives and Adverbs
Pronouns
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Robots on the Road, Again
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Weather
Where rivers run uphill
Recipe for a Hurricane
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Add your Article

Sugar-pill medicine

Feeling sick? You wouldn’t want to take fake medicine for an earache or major illness. But in some cases, the fake stuff can help. Studies have long shown that fake medicines, or placebos, can produce the same healing effect as an active drug. This phenomenon is known as the placebo effect. Placebos come in the form of sugar pills, fake creams or other substances. Medical researchers use placebos in experiments designed to test drugs. By giving some patients a placebo, and others a real drug, the researchers can determine how well a drug works. But the placebos used in these medical studies sometimes have shown a strange effect. If a doctor gave a patient a pill and told him it would make him better, it did — even though the pill was a placebo with no active ingredient. Now, scientists have figured out how placebos work their magic. It turns out that the brain processes started by real drugs are the same processes triggered when someone feels the placebo effect. Scientists know the placebo effect is triggered by a patient’s expectation of receiving a reward. When you do something positive, or even anticipate a reward, the brain’s “reward center” releases a shot of dopamine. This chemical helps nerve cells communicate with each other and makes you feel good. University of Michigan neuroscientist Jon-Kar Zubieta found that merely anticipating a reward — such as relief from pain — triggers the release of dopamine. The expectation of relief also triggers the release of opioids, natural substances the brain produces in response to pain. Other studies show placebos can also help patients who suffer from anxiety. Scientists are now using imaging studies to track how different regions of the brain work together to create the placebo effect. Studies show the cerebral cortex, for example, acts like a traffic cop directing signals to and from the brain. Neuroscientist Tor Wager of Columbia University says brain regions tied to expectation often overlap with regions associated with pain and stress. This is because pain and stress go hand-in-hand with how a person feels. “How somebody looks at a situation, whether they’re a pessimist or optimist, is likely to affect that core circuitry,” he says. Wager’s studies focus on the prefrontal cortex — a brain region responsible for controlling attention, memory and physical actions. It’s also involved with math (especially in kids) and language. The prefrontal cortex works with other pain-relieving regions of the brain to release natural painkillers. Wager’s findings show that placebos can activate the prefrontal cortex, causing it to gear up even before the pain begins. Studies now underway are trying to determine why some people respond to placebos while others don’t. Other studies are needed to better understand how placebos work in the brain. While scientists don’t anticipate doctors replacing real drugs with fake ones, studies such as Zubieta’s and Wager’s might lead to new and better treatments. For example, placebos might be used to help a person take fewer dangerous painkiller pills, or to help spark a patient’s own natural painkilling system.

Sugar-pill medicine
Sugar-pill medicine








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™