Agriculture
Fast-flying fungal spores
Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
Silk’s superpowers
Amphibians
Newts
Salamanders
Frogs and Toads
Animals
A Tongue and a Half
Polly Shouldn't Get a Cracker
A Sense of Danger
Behavior
Making Sense of Scents
Island of Hope
Bringing fish back up to size
Birds
Carnivorous Birds
Songbirds
Birds We Eat
Chemistry and Materials
The newest superheavy in town
Hitting the redo button on evolution
A Butterfly's Electric Glow
Computers
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Programming with Alice
New eyes to scan the skies
Dinosaurs and Fossils
A Big, Weird Dino
A Living Fossil
The bug that may have killed a dinosaur
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
Earth
Coral Islands Survive a Tsunami
Island of Hope
A Great Quake Coming?
Environment
Missing Tigers in India
Island Extinctions
Acid Snails
Finding the Past
Chicken of the Sea
Fakes in the museum
Untangling Human Origins
Fish
Piranha
Marlin
Electric Ray
Food and Nutrition
Food for Life
How Super Are Superfruits?
Making good, brown fat
GSAT English Rules
Adjectives and Adverbs
Order of Adjectives
Who vs. Whom
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT Scholarship
Tarrant High overcoming the odds
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Mathematics
GSAT Mathematics Quiz, Teaching Math, teaching anxiety
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
Math and our number sense: PassGSAT.com
Human Body
Spit Power
Gut Microbes and Weight
What the appendix is good for
Invertebrates
Dragonflies
Ants
Praying Mantis
Mammals
Blue Whales
African Leopards
Bison
Parents
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
How children learn
Physics
Black Hole Journey
IceCube Science
Thinner Air, Less Splatter
Plants
Farms sprout in cities
Flower family knows its roots
A Change in Leaf Color
Reptiles
Copperhead Snakes
Sea Turtles
Black Mamba
Space and Astronomy
Witnessing a Rare Venus Eclipse
A Moon's Icy Spray
A Great Ball of Fire
Technology and Engineering
Squeezing Oil from Old Wells
A Light Delay
Machine Copy
The Parts of Speech
Problems with Prepositions
What is a Noun
Pronouns
Transportation
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
Robots on a Rocky Road
How to Fly Like a Bat
Weather
A Change in Climate
Catching Some Rays
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Add your Article

Sugar-pill medicine

Feeling sick? You wouldn’t want to take fake medicine for an earache or major illness. But in some cases, the fake stuff can help. Studies have long shown that fake medicines, or placebos, can produce the same healing effect as an active drug. This phenomenon is known as the placebo effect. Placebos come in the form of sugar pills, fake creams or other substances. Medical researchers use placebos in experiments designed to test drugs. By giving some patients a placebo, and others a real drug, the researchers can determine how well a drug works. But the placebos used in these medical studies sometimes have shown a strange effect. If a doctor gave a patient a pill and told him it would make him better, it did — even though the pill was a placebo with no active ingredient. Now, scientists have figured out how placebos work their magic. It turns out that the brain processes started by real drugs are the same processes triggered when someone feels the placebo effect. Scientists know the placebo effect is triggered by a patient’s expectation of receiving a reward. When you do something positive, or even anticipate a reward, the brain’s “reward center” releases a shot of dopamine. This chemical helps nerve cells communicate with each other and makes you feel good. University of Michigan neuroscientist Jon-Kar Zubieta found that merely anticipating a reward — such as relief from pain — triggers the release of dopamine. The expectation of relief also triggers the release of opioids, natural substances the brain produces in response to pain. Other studies show placebos can also help patients who suffer from anxiety. Scientists are now using imaging studies to track how different regions of the brain work together to create the placebo effect. Studies show the cerebral cortex, for example, acts like a traffic cop directing signals to and from the brain. Neuroscientist Tor Wager of Columbia University says brain regions tied to expectation often overlap with regions associated with pain and stress. This is because pain and stress go hand-in-hand with how a person feels. “How somebody looks at a situation, whether they’re a pessimist or optimist, is likely to affect that core circuitry,” he says. Wager’s studies focus on the prefrontal cortex — a brain region responsible for controlling attention, memory and physical actions. It’s also involved with math (especially in kids) and language. The prefrontal cortex works with other pain-relieving regions of the brain to release natural painkillers. Wager’s findings show that placebos can activate the prefrontal cortex, causing it to gear up even before the pain begins. Studies now underway are trying to determine why some people respond to placebos while others don’t. Other studies are needed to better understand how placebos work in the brain. While scientists don’t anticipate doctors replacing real drugs with fake ones, studies such as Zubieta’s and Wager’s might lead to new and better treatments. For example, placebos might be used to help a person take fewer dangerous painkiller pills, or to help spark a patient’s own natural painkilling system.

Sugar-pill medicine
Sugar-pill medicine








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™