Agriculture
New Gene Fights Potato Blight
Treating peanut allergy bit by bit
Cleaning Up Fish Farms
Amphibians
Salamanders
Bullfrogs
Newts
Animals
Walktopus
Mating Slows Down Prairie Dogs
Insects Take a Breather
Behavior
Taking a Spill for Science
Pondering the puzzling platypus
The chemistry of sleeplessness
Birds
Mockingbirds
Emus
Lovebirds
Chemistry and Materials
Sweeeet! The Skinny on Sugar Substitutes
Unscrambling a Gem of a Mystery
Sugary Survival Skill
Computers
A New Look at Saturn's rings
Toxic Dirt + Avian Flu = Science Fair Success
Nonstop Robot
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Middle school science adventures
The Paleontologist and the Three Dinosaurs
A Rainforest Trapped in Amber
E Learning Jamaica
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Life under Ice
Bugs with Gas
Earth's Poles in Peril
Environment
A Change in Time
Watching for Wildfires in Yellowstone
A Newspaper's Hidden Cost
Finding the Past
Decoding a Beverage Jar
A Long Haul
An Ancient Childhood
Fish
Basking Sharks
Seahorses
Freshwater Fish
Food and Nutrition
Symbols from the Stone Age
Packing Fat
Allergies: From Bee Stings to Peanuts
GSAT English Rules
Adjectives and Adverbs
Subject and Verb Agreement
Order of Adjectives
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT Exam Preparation
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Mathematics
Losing with Heads or Tails
Prime Time for Cicadas
Setting a Prime Number Record
Human Body
Music in the Brain
Kids now getting 'adult' disease
Workouts: Does Stretching Help?
Invertebrates
Nautiluses
Insects
Sponges
Mammals
Black Bear
Sheep
Walrus
Parents
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Physics
One ring around them all
Dreams of Floating in Space
IceCube Science
Plants
Making the most of a meal
When Fungi and Algae Marry
Springing forward
Reptiles
Cobras
Komodo Dragons
Chameleons
Space and Astronomy
Slip-sliding away
Cool as a Jupiter
Older Stars, New Age for the Universe
Technology and Engineering
Musclebots Take Some Steps
Switchable Lenses Improve Vision
Smart Windows
The Parts of Speech
Problems with Prepositions
Pronouns
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Charged cars that would charge
Reach for the Sky
Weather
In Antarctica watch the heat (and your step)
Watering the Air
Earth's Poles in Peril
Add your Article

Sugar-pill medicine

Feeling sick? You wouldn’t want to take fake medicine for an earache or major illness. But in some cases, the fake stuff can help. Studies have long shown that fake medicines, or placebos, can produce the same healing effect as an active drug. This phenomenon is known as the placebo effect. Placebos come in the form of sugar pills, fake creams or other substances. Medical researchers use placebos in experiments designed to test drugs. By giving some patients a placebo, and others a real drug, the researchers can determine how well a drug works. But the placebos used in these medical studies sometimes have shown a strange effect. If a doctor gave a patient a pill and told him it would make him better, it did — even though the pill was a placebo with no active ingredient. Now, scientists have figured out how placebos work their magic. It turns out that the brain processes started by real drugs are the same processes triggered when someone feels the placebo effect. Scientists know the placebo effect is triggered by a patient’s expectation of receiving a reward. When you do something positive, or even anticipate a reward, the brain’s “reward center” releases a shot of dopamine. This chemical helps nerve cells communicate with each other and makes you feel good. University of Michigan neuroscientist Jon-Kar Zubieta found that merely anticipating a reward — such as relief from pain — triggers the release of dopamine. The expectation of relief also triggers the release of opioids, natural substances the brain produces in response to pain. Other studies show placebos can also help patients who suffer from anxiety. Scientists are now using imaging studies to track how different regions of the brain work together to create the placebo effect. Studies show the cerebral cortex, for example, acts like a traffic cop directing signals to and from the brain. Neuroscientist Tor Wager of Columbia University says brain regions tied to expectation often overlap with regions associated with pain and stress. This is because pain and stress go hand-in-hand with how a person feels. “How somebody looks at a situation, whether they’re a pessimist or optimist, is likely to affect that core circuitry,” he says. Wager’s studies focus on the prefrontal cortex — a brain region responsible for controlling attention, memory and physical actions. It’s also involved with math (especially in kids) and language. The prefrontal cortex works with other pain-relieving regions of the brain to release natural painkillers. Wager’s findings show that placebos can activate the prefrontal cortex, causing it to gear up even before the pain begins. Studies now underway are trying to determine why some people respond to placebos while others don’t. Other studies are needed to better understand how placebos work in the brain. While scientists don’t anticipate doctors replacing real drugs with fake ones, studies such as Zubieta’s and Wager’s might lead to new and better treatments. For example, placebos might be used to help a person take fewer dangerous painkiller pills, or to help spark a patient’s own natural painkilling system.

Sugar-pill medicine
Sugar-pill medicine








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™