Agriculture
New Gene Fights Potato Blight
Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
Silk’s superpowers
Amphibians
Salamanders and Newts
Tree Frogs
Bullfrogs
Animals
Sleep Affects a Bird's Singing
G-Tunes with a Message
Cool Penguins
Behavior
Baby Talk
Two monkeys see a more colorful world
Brain cells take a break
Birds
Seagulls
Storks
Hawks
Chemistry and Materials
These gems make their own way
Undercover Detectives
A Light Delay
Computers
Hubble trouble doubled
Lighting goes digital
The hungry blob at the edge of the universe
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Digging Dinos
Dino Bite Leaves a Tooth
Message in a dinosaur's teeth
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Quick Quake Alerts
Ancient Heights
Challenging the Forces of Nature
Environment
A Change in Climate
Animal CSI or from Science Lab to Crime Lab
The Oily Gulf
Finding the Past
A Big Discovery about Little People
Stone Age Sole Survivors
Writing on eggshells
Fish
Goldfish
Flashlight Fishes
Bass
Food and Nutrition
Packing Fat
Recipe for Health
The Essence of Celery
GSAT English Rules
Capitalization Rules
Pronouns
Adjectives and Adverbs
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
Preparing for the GSAT Exam
Scotiabank Jamaica Foundation Grade Six Achievement Test (GSAT) Scholarships
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT Exam Preparation
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT Mathematics
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
Math Naturals
Prime Time for Cicadas
Human Body
Football Scrapes and Nasty Infections
Hey batter, wake up!
Sleeping Soundly for a Longer Life
Invertebrates
Dust Mites
Crabs
Ants
Mammals
Giant Panda
Woolly Mammoths
Doberman Pinschers
Parents
How children learn
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Physics
Echoes of a Stretched Egg
Thinner Air, Less Splatter
One ring around them all
Plants
When Fungi and Algae Marry
A Giant Flower's New Family
Stalking Plants by Scent
Reptiles
Sea Turtles
Caimans
Copperhead Snakes
Space and Astronomy
Burst Busters
A Darker, Warmer Red Planet
Baby Star
Technology and Engineering
Riding Sunlight
Beyond Bar Codes
Musclebots Take Some Steps
The Parts of Speech
What is a Verb?
What is a Noun
Problems with Prepositions
Transportation
Charged cars that would charge
Revving Up Green Machines
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Weather
Catching Some Rays
Recipe for a Hurricane
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Add your Article

Salt and Early Civilization

Before salted fries came out of drive-through windows, before salty pretzels sat on the shelves of every grocery store, before there was a saltshaker on every dinner table, people had to go to a lot of trouble to get salt. Archaeologists have now uncovered the earliest strong evidence of salt production ever found. It suggests that large-scale salt making occurred at least 4,000 years ago in a settlement in central China. The new evidence comes out of the ruins at Zhongba, a settlement along the salty Ganjing River. Artifacts include pieces of vessels that were used to boil river water. Boiling salty water causes the water to evaporate, leaving behind cakes of salt. The oldest objects from Zhongba, dating back to between 2000 B.C. and 1750 B.C., include vats with pointy bottoms that were used to either store or boil salt water. From the period between 1630 B.C. and 1210 B.C., the researchers found lots of small cups with pointy bottoms. These were probably molds for making salt cones for trading. From the period between 1100 B.C. and 200 B.C., the archaeologists dug up small jars with round bottoms. People still use jars like this in some parts of the world to boil salt water and make salt cakes. Chemical analyses of the river water and of the soil in pits at Zhongba provide further evidence of salt making. Remains inside the round-bottomed jars seem to be calcium oxide, a chemical that forms during the salt-making process. There were also tiny traces of salt inside many of the vessels found at the site. Learning how to produce large amounts of salt helped the Chinese develop cities and build empires, the scientists say. Back when salt and salted foods were hard to come by, the crystal seasoning was worth a lot, and the Chinese traded it for other goods. Now that they have the technology to do it, archaeologists want to look for signs of salt making at even older sites in the Middle East. Even as nutritionists today warn that people are eating too much salt, the history of the seasoning has a lot to say about the development of cultures around the world.—E. Sohn

Salt and Early Civilization
Salt and Early Civilization








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™