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Got Milk? How?
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Chicken Eggs as Drug Factories
Amphibians
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Revenge of the Cowbirds
A Whale's Amazing Tooth
A Tongue and a Half
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Hitting the redo button on evolution
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Popping to Perfection
Sweeeet! The Skinny on Sugar Substitutes
The metal detector in your mouth
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Graphene's superstrength
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The Book of Life
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Have shell, will travel
Meet your mysterious relative
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Earth
Earth Rocks On
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Greener Diet
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The Down Side of Keeping Clean
Acid Snails
The Best Defense Is a Good Snow Fence
Finding the Past
Fakes in the museum
Untangling Human Origins
An Ancient Childhood
Fish
Great White Shark
Trout
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Building a Food Pyramid
Strong Bones for Life
The Essence of Celery
GSAT English Rules
Subject and Verb Agreement
Problems with Prepositions
Order of Adjectives
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March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
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Secrets of an Ancient Computer
Monkeys Count
GSAT Mathematics Quiz, Teaching Math, teaching anxiety
Human Body
A Long Haul
Walking to Exercise the Brain
A Better Flu Shot
Invertebrates
Leeches
Crawfish
Lobsters
Mammals
Capybaras
Wildcats
Siamese Cats
Parents
How children learn
Children and Media
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Physics
The Pressure of Scuba Diving
Strange Universe: The Stuff of Darkness
Black Hole Journey
Plants
Farms sprout in cities
Fastest Plant on Earth
Plants Travel Wind Highways
Reptiles
Garter Snakes
Boa Constrictors
Sea Turtles
Space and Astronomy
Saturn's Spongy Moon
Catching a Comet's Tail
Cousin Earth
Technology and Engineering
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Squeezing Oil from Old Wells
A Clean Getaway
The Parts of Speech
Adjectives and Adverbs
What is a Verb?
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Transportation
Revving Up Green Machines
Ready, unplug, drive
Reach for the Sky
Weather
Polar Ice Feels the Heat
The solar system's biggest junkyard
In Antarctica watch the heat (and your step)
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Return of the Lost Limbs

When people lose legs after accidents or illnesses, emergency care and artificial limbs often allow them to walk again. But salamanders and newts in the same situation don't need doctors or artificial body parts. They can grow limbs back on their own. Scientists have known for a long time that certain animals can regenerate limbs, but they haven't quite figured out how these creatures do it. Researchers from University College London have now come up with some new insights. Their work may lead to breakthroughs that could eventually enable people, too, to regrow lost limbs. The researchers started with two simple observations: When you cut off a newt's leg at the ankle, only the foot grows back. If you cut off a leg at the base, the whole leg grows back. In both cases, the regrowth begins with stem cells . Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can develop into nearly any type of cell in the body. But how do a newt's stem cells know when to regrow only a foot and when to regrow an entire leg? This question relates to another mystery: In newts, a severed leg will grow back only if the bundle of nerves in it also grows back. But if something prevents the nerve bundle from growing, the stem cells at the site of the wound won't multiply to produce a new leg. In its study, the British team zeroed in on a protein called nAG. When the team prevented nerves in a limb from growing, but added the nAG protein to stem cells in the limb, the limb still regrew. The scientists suspect that nerves in the stub of a limb signal the release of the nAG protein. That protein seems to guide limb regrowth. People and other mammals have proteins that are similar to nAG. Further research into these compounds may some day help human limbs and organs heal themselves.—Emily Sohn

Return of the Lost Limbs
Return of the Lost Limbs








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