Agriculture
Where Have All the Bees Gone?
Watching out for vultures
Keeping Bugs Away from Food
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Salamanders and Newts
Salamanders
Animals
Cannibal Crickets
A Sense of Danger
Mouse Songs
Behavior
The nerve of one animal
The Other Side of the Zoo Fence
Math is a real brain bender
Birds
Kookaburras
Pelicans
Kingfishers
Chemistry and Materials
Getting the dirt on carbon
The memory of a material
The hottest soup in New York
Computers
Small but WISE
Hitting the redo button on evolution
Fingerprint Evidence
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Three strikes wiped out woolly mammoths
Digging Dinos
Dino Bite Leaves a Tooth
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Coral Gardens
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
Coral Islands Survive a Tsunami
Environment
The Oily Gulf
When Fungi and Algae Marry
An Ocean View's Downside
Finding the Past
Watching deep-space fireworks
Salt and Early Civilization
If Only Bones Could Speak
Fish
Dogfish
Perches
Bass
Food and Nutrition
The Essence of Celery
Chocolate Rules
Allergies: From Bee Stings to Peanuts
GSAT English Rules
Problems with Prepositions
Subject and Verb Agreement
Order of Adjectives
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
The Annual GSAT Scholarships
Tarrant High overcoming the odds
March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Mathematics
Play for Science
Math of the World
Monkeys Count
Human Body
Spit Power
Music in the Brain
Sun Screen
Invertebrates
Crawfish
Millipedes
Grasshoppers
Mammals
African Wild Dog
Rabbits
Moose
Parents
Children and Media
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Physics
Electric Backpack
Road Bumps
Thinner Air, Less Splatter
Plants
Plants Travel Wind Highways
Seeds of the Future
Making the most of a meal
Reptiles
Cobras
Komodo Dragons
Snapping Turtles
Space and Astronomy
Mercury's magnetic twisters
A Dead Star's Dusty Ring
The two faces of Mars
Technology and Engineering
Model Plane Flies the Atlantic
Bionic Bacteria
Riding Sunlight
The Parts of Speech
What is a Verb?
Adjectives and Adverbs
Problems with Prepositions
Transportation
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Revving Up Green Machines
Ready, unplug, drive
Weather
The Best Defense Is a Good Snow Fence
Catching Some Rays
Arctic Melt
Add your Article

Penguins

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of aquatic, flightless birds living in the Southern Hemisphere. The number of species has been and still is a matter of debate. The numbers of penguin species listed in the literature vary between 16 and 19 species. Weights and Measures: The largest species is the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): adults average about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kg (75 lb) or more. The smallest penguin species is the Little Blue Penguin (also known as the Fairy Penguin), which stands around 40 cm tall (16 in) and weighs 1 kg (2.2 lb). Generally larger penguins retain heat better, and thus inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are found in temperate or even tropical climates. Hot and Cold: Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not, contrary to popular belief, found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin actually live so far south. Three species live in the tropics; one lives as far north as the Galápagos Islands (the Galápagos Penguin) and will occasionally cross the equator while feeding. Penguin Prey: Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sea life caught while swimming underwater. They spend half of their life on land and half in the oceans. Kidnappers: When mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to steal another mother's chick, usually unsuccessfully as other females in the vicinity assist the defending mother in keeping her chick. Fearless and Feathered: Penguins seem to have no fear of humans, and have approached groups of explorers without hesitation. Brave Breeders: Emperor Penguins (the largest penguins) first begin to breed at approximately five years of age. Emperor penguins travel about 90 km inland to reach the breeding site. In March or April, the penguins start courtship, when the temperature can be as low as -40 degrees C (-40°F). Annual Attachment: Emperor penguins are serially monogamous. They have only one mate each year, and keep faithfully to that one other penguin, but each year, most choose different mates. Penguin Parenting: In May or June, the female penguin lays one 450-gram (1 pound) egg, but at this point her nutritional reserves are exhausted and she must immediately return to the sea to feed. Very carefully, she transfers the egg to the male penguin, who will incubate the egg in his brood pouch for about 65 days consecutively without food by surviving on his fat reserves and spending the majority of the time sleeping to conserve energy. To survive the cold and wind (up to 200 km per hour, or 120 mph), the males huddle together, taking turns in the middle of the huddle. If the chick hatches before the mother's return, the father sits the chick on his feet and covers it with his pouch, feeding it a white milky substance produced by a gland in his esophagus. After about two months, the female returns. She finds her mate among the hundreds of fathers via his call and takes over caring for the chick, feeding it by regurgitating the food that she has stored in her stomach. The male then leaves to take his turn at sea. After another few weeks, the male returns and both parents tend to the chick by keeping it off the ice and feeding it food from their stomachs. About two months after the egg hatches, as the weather becomes milder, the chicks huddle in a crèche for warmth and protection, still fed by their parents using the food from their stomachs. Species Speculation: The number of extant species has been and still is a matter of debate. The numbers of penguin species listed in the literature vary between 16 and 19 species. Some sources consider the White-Flippered Penguin a separate Eudyptula species, although today it is generally considered a subspecies of the Little Penguin (e.g. Williams, 1995; Davis & Renner, 2003). Similarly, it is still unclear whether the Royal Penguin is merely a colour morph of the Macaroni penguin. Also possibly eligible to be treated as a separate species is the Northern population of Rockhopper penguins (Davis & Renner, 2003). Penguin Evolution: The evolutionary history of penguins is poorly understood, as penguin fossils are rare. The oldest known fossil penguin species are the Waimanu, which lived in the early Paleocene epoch of New Zealand, about 62 million years ago. While they were not as well adapted to aquatic life as modern penguins (which first emerged in the Eocene epoch 40 million years ago), Waimanu were flightless and loon-like, with short wings adapted for deep diving. These fossils prove that prehistoric penguins were already flightless and seagoing, so their origins probably reach as far back as 65 million years ago, before the extinction of the dinosaurs. Penguin ancestry beyond Waimanu is not well known, though some scientists (Mayr, 2005) think the penguin-like plotopterids (usually considered relatives of anhingas and cormorants) may actually be an early sister group of the penguins, and that penguins may have ultimately shared a common ancestor with the Pelecaniformes.

Penguins
Penguins








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™