Agriculture
Fast-flying fungal spores
Flush-Free Fertilizer
Got Milk? How?
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Frogs and Toads
Salamanders and Newts
Animals
Sleep Affects a Bird's Singing
Fishy Cleaners
Insects Take a Breather
Behavior
Flower family knows its roots
Contemplating thought
Between a rock and a wet place
Birds
Swifts
Emus
Roadrunners
Chemistry and Materials
A Spider's Silky Strength
Scientist Profile: Wally Gilbert
Gooey Secrets of Mussel Power
Computers
Small but WISE
Two monkeys see a more colorful world
Look into My Eyes
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Fingerprinting Fossils
Supersight for a Dino King
Dinosaur Dig
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
The Pacific Ocean's Bald Spot
Earth Rocks On
Detecting an Eerie Sea Glow
Environment
Sea Otters, Kelp, and Killer Whales
A Newspaper's Hidden Cost
City Trees Beat Country Trees
Finding the Past
Ancient Art on the Rocks
An Ancient Childhood
A Plankhouse Past
Fish
Electric Catfish
Trout
Swordfish
Food and Nutrition
Building a Food Pyramid
Food for Life
Eat Out, Eat Smart
GSAT English Rules
Whoever vs. Whomever
Capitalization Rules
Who vs. Whom
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
How are students placed after passing the GSAT exam
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
GSAT Mathematics
Play for Science
Secrets of an Ancient Computer
Prime Time for Cicadas
Human Body
Football Scrapes and Nasty Infections
Music in the Brain
Running with Sneaker Science
Invertebrates
Sponges
Fleas
Giant Squid
Mammals
Lhasa Apsos
Chinchillas
Sea Lions
Parents
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Physics
Electric Backpack
Dreams of Floating in Space
Black Hole Journey
Plants
Cactus Goo for Clean Water
Bright Blooms That Glow
Seeds of the Future
Reptiles
Box Turtles
Caimans
Snapping Turtles
Space and Astronomy
Evidence of a Wet Mars
A Planet's Slim-Fast Plan
A Great Ball of Fire
Technology and Engineering
Toy Challenge
Smart Windows
Shape Shifting
The Parts of Speech
Pronouns
Problems with Prepositions
What is a Noun
Transportation
Reach for the Sky
How to Fly Like a Bat
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Weather
Science loses out when ice caps melt
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Arctic Melt
Add your Article

Oxen

Oxen (plural of ox) are cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult, castrated males. Usually an ox is over four years old due to the need for training and for time to grow to full size. Oxen are used for plowing, transport, hauling cargo, grain-grinding by trampling or by powering machines, irrigation by powering pumps, and wagon drawing. Oxen were commonly used to skid logs in forests, and sometimes still are, in low-impact select-cut logging. Contrary to popular American lore, an "ox" is not a unique breed of bovine, nor have any "blue" oxen lived outside the folk tales surrounding Paul Bunyan, the mythical American logger. Ox Education: An ox is nothing more than a mature bovine with an "education". The education consists of the animal's learning to respond appropriately to the teamster's (ox driver's) commands: in North America such as (1) get up, (2) whoa, (3) back up, (4) gee (turn to the right) and (5) haw (turn to the left). American ox trainers favored larger breeds for their ability to do more work in addition to their intelligence (the ability to learn); for the same reason, the typical ox is the male of a breed, rather than the smaller female. Females are potentially more useful producing calves and milk. Also, the gait of the ox is often important to ox trainers, since the speed the animal walks should roughly match the gait of the ox driver who must work with it. Beast of Burden: Oxen are most often used in teams of two, paired, for light work such as carting. In past days some teams were about fourteen, and even over twenty for logging. A wooden yoke is fastened about the neck of each pair so that the force of draft is distributed across their shoulders. From calves, oxen are chosen with horns since the horns hold the yoke in place when the oxen lower their heads, back up or slow down (particularly with a wheeled vehicle going downhill). Yoked oxen cannot slow a load like harnessed horses can; the load has to be controlled downhill by other means. Oxen must be painstakingly trained from a young age. Their teamster must make or buy as many as a dozen yokes of different sizes as the animals grow. Ox teams are steered by commands or noise (whip cracks) and many teamsters were known for their voices and language. 14 Ox-Power: Oxen can pull harder and longer than horses, particularly on obstinate or almost un-movable loads. This is one of the reasons that teams were dragging logs from forests long after horses had taken over most other draught uses in Europe and the New World. Though not as fast as horses, they are less prone to injury because they are more sure-footed and do not try to jerk the load. Many oxen are still in use worldwide, especially in Developing countries. In the Third World oxen can lead lives of misery. They are frequently half starved. Oxen are driven with sticks and goads when they are weak from malnutrition. When there is insufficient food for humans animal welfare has low priority.

Oxen
Oxen








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™