Agriculture
Middle school science adventures
Making the most of a meal
Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
Amphibians
Newts
Salamanders
Frogs and Toads
Animals
Blotchy Face, Big-Time Wasp
Clone Wars
Tool Use Comes Naturally to Crows
Behavior
Mind-reading Machine
Between a rock and a wet place
Supersonic Splash
Birds
Ibises
Owls
Woodpecker
Chemistry and Materials
A Spider's Silky Strength
Getting the dirt on carbon
The hottest soup in New York
Computers
Hubble trouble doubled
Programming with Alice
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Some Dinos Dined on Grass
Big Fish in Ancient Waters
Watery Fate for Nature's Gliders
E Learning Jamaica
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
Earth
Slip Slidin' Away—Under the Sea
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
Science loses out when ice caps melt
Environment
Inspired by Nature
A 'Book' on Every Living Thing
City Trees Beat Country Trees
Finding the Past
Stonehenge Settlement
Digging Up Stone Age Art
Watching deep-space fireworks
Fish
Manta Rays
Lampreys
Mahi-Mahi
Food and Nutrition
In Search of the Perfect French Fry
Recipe for Health
Chew for Health
GSAT English Rules
Problems with Prepositions
Subject and Verb Agreement
Whoever vs. Whomever
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Mathematics
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Math and our number sense: PassGSAT.com
Losing with Heads or Tails
Human Body
Spit Power
Taste Messenger
Football Scrapes and Nasty Infections
Invertebrates
Wasps
Tarantula
Mussels
Mammals
Whales
Chinchillas
Pugs
Parents
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Physics
Echoes of a Stretched Egg
Spin, Splat, and Scramble
Project Music
Plants
Getting the dirt on carbon
Fast-flying fungal spores
Sweet, Sticky Science
Reptiles
Gila Monsters
Geckos
Boa Constrictors
Space and Astronomy
Burst Busters
Zooming In on the Wild Sun
A Galaxy Far, Far, Far Away
Technology and Engineering
Shape Shifting
Sugar Power for Cell Phones
Slip Sliming Away
The Parts of Speech
What is a Verb?
Problems with Prepositions
What is a Noun
Transportation
Robots on a Rocky Road
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Middle school science adventures
Weather
Recipe for a Hurricane
Earth's Poles in Peril
Catching Some Rays
Add your Article

Octopuses

The octopus is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. The term may also refer to only those creatures in the genus Octopus. In the larger sense, there are 289 different octopus species, which is over one-third the total number of cephalopod species. Octopuses are characterized by their eight arms (not tentacles), usually bearing suction cups. These arms are a type of muscular hydrostat. Unlike most other cephalopods, the majority of octopuses have almost entirely soft bodies with no internal skeleton. They have neither a protective outer shell like the nautilus, nor any vestige of an internal shell or bones, like cuttlefish or squid. A beak, similar in shape to a parrot's beak, is their only hard part. This enables them to squeeze through very narrow slits between underwater rocks, which is very helpful when they are fleeing from morays or other predatory fish. Long arms, short lives: Octopuses have a relatively short life span, and some species live for as little as six months. Larger species, such as the North Pacific Giant Octopus, may live for up to five years under suitable circumstances. However, reproduction is a cause of death: males can only live for a few months after mating, and females die shortly after their eggs hatch, for they neglect to eat during the (roughly) one month period spent taking care of their unhatched eggs. Three hearts! Octopuses have three hearts. Two pump blood through each of the two gills, while the third pumps blood through the body. Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein hemocyanin for transporting oxygen. Less efficient than the iron-rich hemoglobin of vertebrates, the hemocyanin is dissolved in the plasma instead of being bound in red blood cells and gives the blood a blue color. Octopuses draw water into their mantle cavity where it passes through its gills. As a mollusc, octopus gills are finely divided and vascularilzed outgrowths of either the outer or the inner body surface. Three defense strategy: Three defensive mechanisms are typical of octopuses: ink sacs, camouflage, and autotomising limbs. Most octopuses can eject a thick blackish ink in a large cloud to aid in escaping from predators. They also have specialized skin cells both for color changing and light reflection and refraction. They use this ability to blend into the environment to hide, communicate with other octopuses, or warn. The very poisonous Blue-ringed Octopus becomes bright yellow with blue rings when it is provoked. When under attack, some octopuses can autotomise their limbs, in a similar manner to skinks and other lizards. The crawling arm serves as a distraction to would-be predators; this ability is also used in mating. A few species, such as the Mimic Octopus have a fourth defense mechanism. They can combine their highly flexible bodies with their color changing ability to accurately mimic other, more dangerous animals such as lionfish and eels. As smart as a cat: Octopuses are highly intelligent, probably the most intelligent of any of the invertebrates, with their intelligence supposedly comparable to that of the average housecat. Maze and problem-solving experiments show that they have both short- and long-term memory, although their short lifespans limit the amount they can ultimately learn. Arm nerves: An octopus has a highly complex nervous system, only part of which is localized in its brain. Two-thirds of an octopus's neurons are found in the nerve cords of its arms, which have a remarkable amount of autonomy. Octopus arms show a wide variety of complex reflex actions arising on at least three different levels of the nervous system. Some octopuses, such as the mimic octopus, will move their arms in ways that emulate the movements of other sea creatures. Slow travel - crawl, Fast travel - Swim: Octopuses move about by crawling or swimming. Their main means of slow travel is crawling, with some swimming. Their only means of fast travel is swimming. Their fastest movements can be up to eighty five miles per hour. They can go extremely fast due to the fact that their three hearts have to pump through each vascular pump at a paralell sequence. They go this fast if hungry or if in danger. Pretend to be a coconut: They crawl by walking on their arms, usually on many at once, on solid surfaces, while supported in water. In 2005 it was reported that some octopuses can walk on two arms on a solid surface, while at the same time imitating a coconut or a clump of seaweed. They swim by expelling a jet of water from a contractile mantle, and aiming it via a muscular siphon. When octopuses reproduce, males use a specialized arm called a hectocotylus to insert spermatophores (packets of sperm) into the female's mantle cavity. The hectocotylus is usually the third right arm. In some species, the female octopus can keep the sperm alive inside her for weeks until her eggs are mature. After they have been fertilized, the female lays roughly 200,000 eggs (this figure dramatically varies between families, genera, species and also individuals). The female hangs these eggs in strings from the ceiling of her lair, or individually attatched to the substratum depending on the species. After the eggs hatch, the young larval octopuses must spend a period of time drifting in clouds of plankton, where they feed on copepods, larval crabs and larval seastars until they are ready to sink down to the bottom of the ocean, where the cycle repeats itself. In some deeper dwelling species, the young do not go through this period. This is a dangerous time for the larval octopuses; as they become part of the plankton cloud they are vulnerable to many plankton eaters

Octopuses
Octopuses








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™