Agriculture
Hungry bug seeks hot meal
Protecting Cows—and People—from a Deadly Disease
Keeping Bugs Away from Food
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Newts
Salamanders and Newts
Animals
Insect Stowaways
Poor Devils
Young Ants in the Kitchen
Behavior
Seeing red means danger ahead
Slumber by the numbers
Two monkeys see a more colorful world
Birds
Woodpecker
Crows
Storks
Chemistry and Materials
Moon Crash, Splash
Spinning Clay into Cotton
Makeup Science
Computers
The Book of Life
Galaxies far, far, far away
Getting in Touch with Touch
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Feathered Fossils
Tiny Pterodactyl
Middle school science adventures
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Petrified Lightning
Recipe for a Hurricane
Plastic-munching microbes
Environment
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Animal CSI or from Science Lab to Crime Lab
Plant Gas
Finding the Past
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
A Long Trek to Asia
A Big Discovery about Little People
Fish
Lungfish
White Tip Sharks
Catfish
Food and Nutrition
Recipe for Health
Food for Life
In Search of the Perfect French Fry
GSAT English Rules
Subject and Verb Agreement
Whoever vs. Whomever
Capitalization Rules
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
Mastering The GSAT Exam
GSAT Exam Preparation
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Scholarship
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Mathematics
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
Setting a Prime Number Record
Play for Science
Human Body
Workouts: Does Stretching Help?
Dreaming makes perfect
Hey batter, wake up!
Invertebrates
Bedbugs
Sponges
Cockroaches
Mammals
Coyotes
Lhasa Apsos
African Leopards
Parents
How children learn
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Physics
Hold on to your stars, ladies and gentlemen
Thinner Air, Less Splatter
Powering Ball Lightning
Plants
City Trees Beat Country Trees
Cactus Goo for Clean Water
Fastest Plant on Earth
Reptiles
Komodo Dragons
Rattlesnakes
Turtles
Space and Astronomy
The two faces of Mars
Solving a Sedna Mystery
An Earthlike Planet
Technology and Engineering
Squeezing Oil from Old Wells
Space Umbrellas to Shield Earth
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
The Parts of Speech
What is a Noun
What is a Preposition?
Adjectives and Adverbs
Transportation
Robots on a Rocky Road
Robots on the Road, Again
Where rivers run uphill
Weather
A Dire Shortage of Water
The solar system's biggest junkyard
In Antarctica watch the heat (and your step)
Add your Article

Mice sense each other's fear

You can usually tell when people are afraid just by the look on their faces. Mice can tell when other mice are afraid too. But instead of using their beady little eyes to detect fear in their fellows, they use their pink little noses. FEAR-OMONE: Mice smell fear in other mice using a structure called the Grueneberg ganglion. The ganglion has about 500 nerve cells that carry messages between a mouse's nose and brain. scientists are beginning to understand how mice sense fear. According to a new study, the animals use a structure which sits inside the tip of their whiskered noses. This Grueneberg ganglion is made up of about 500 specialized cells - neurons - that carry messages between the body and the brain. Researchers discovered this ganglion in 1973. Since then, they have been trying to figure out what it does. "It's ... something the field has been waiting for, to know what these cells are doing," says Minghong Ma, a neuroscientist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia. Researchers already knew that this structure sends messages to the part of the brain that figures out how things smell. But there are other structures in a mouse's nose that pick up odors. So, this ganglion's true function remained a mystery. To investigate further, researchers from Switzerland began testing the ganglion's response to a variety of odors and other things, including urine, temperature, pressure, acidity, breastmilk and message-carrying chemicals called pheromones. The ganglion ignored everything the team threw at it. That only deepened the mystery of what the ganglion was actually doing. Next, the scientists used highly detailed microscopes (called electron microscopes) to analyze the ganglion in fine detail. Based on what they saw, the Swiss scientists began to suspect that the structure detects a certain kind of pheromone - one that mice release when they're afraid or in danger. These substances are called alarm pheromones. To test their theory, the researchers collected alarm chemicals from mice that had encountered a poison - carbon dioxide - and were now dying Then, the scientists exposed living mice to these chemical warning signals. The results were revealing. Cells in the Grueneberg ganglions of the living mice became active, for one thing. At the same time, these mice began acting fearful: They ran away from a tray of water that contained alarm pheromones and froze in the corner. The researchers conducted the same experiment with mice whose Grueneberg ganglions had been surgically removed. When exposed to alarm pheromones, these mice continued exploring as usual. Without the ganglion, they couldn't smell fear. Their sense of smell wasn't completely ruined, however. Tests showed that they were able to smell a hidden Oreo cookie. Not all experts are convinced that the Grueneberg ganglion detects alarm pheromones, or that there is even such a thing as an alarm pheromone. What's clear, however, is that mice do have a much more fine-tuned ability to sense chemicals in the air than do humans. When people are afraid, they usually yell or wave for help. If humans were more like mice, imagine how scary it might be just to inhale the air in an amusement park!

Mice sense each other's fear
Mice sense each other's fear








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™