Agriculture
Microbes at the Gas Pump
Fast-flying fungal spores
Got Milk? How?
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Poison Dart Frogs
Toads
Animals
Cool Penguins
Walks on the Wild Side
A Microbe Nanny for Young Wasps
Behavior
Why Cats Nap and Whales Snooze
Brainy bees know two from three
A brain-boosting video game
Birds
Pheasants
Hummingbirds
Quails
Chemistry and Materials
Popping to Perfection
Pencil Thin
A Framework for Growing Bone
Computers
The science of disappearing
Middle school science adventures
Lighting goes digital
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Fingerprinting Fossils
Dino Babies
Dinosaurs Grow Up
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
The Rise of Yellowstone
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
Weird, new ant
Environment
Nanosponges Soak Up Pollutants
A Change in Leaf Color
An Ocean View's Downside
Finding the Past
A Long Trek to Asia
Salt and Early Civilization
Your inner Neandertal
Fish
Electric Eel
Barracudas
Tilapia
Food and Nutrition
Turning to Sweets, Fats to Calm the Brain
In Search of the Perfect French Fry
Sponges' secret weapon
GSAT English Rules
Finding Subjects and Verbs
Adjectives and Adverbs
Pronouns
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Exam Preparation
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Mathematics
Math and our number sense: PassGSAT.com
Prime Time for Cicadas
Math is a real brain bender
Human Body
Taking the sting out of scorpion venom
Dreaming makes perfect
Attacking Asthma
Invertebrates
Clams
Tapeworms
Lice
Mammals
Rabbits
Bears
African Wildedbeest
Parents
Children and Media
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Physics
IceCube Science
Invisibility Ring
The Pressure of Scuba Diving
Plants
Assembling the Tree of Life
Flower family knows its roots
Underwater Jungles
Reptiles
Gila Monsters
Anacondas
Geckos
Space and Astronomy
An Earthlike Planet
A Darker, Warmer Red Planet
Pluto, plutoid: What's in a name?
Technology and Engineering
Reach for the Sky
Supersuits for Superheroes
Drawing Energy out of Wastewater
The Parts of Speech
What is a Noun
Problems with Prepositions
What is a Preposition?
Transportation
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Reach for the Sky
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Weather
Polar Ice Feels the Heat
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
Either Martians or Mars has gas
Add your Article

Making good, brown fat

Not all fats are created equal: There’s white fat, which stores energy. There’s also another kind of human body fat that actually burns energy and heats up. Babies have this kind of fat, and earlier this year, scientists found that adults have it too. Called brown fat, this substance is stored mainly in the upper body. According to a new study, it may be possible to make brown fat out of other kinds of cells in the body, such as skin cells. A team of researchers, led by Bruce Spiegelman of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School in Boston, Mass., made brown fat tissue from the skin cells of mice and mouse myoblasts. (A myoblast is a cell that will develop into muscle.) Because brown fat can burn excess energy, researchers hope it may be used to treat obesity and diabetes. Obesity, which is the condition of being overweight, can lead to other major health problems. Diabetes is a general name given to several different types of illnesses, all of which relate to the body’s ability to manage energy. In order to make the brown fat cells, Spiegelman and his team started with mouse myoblasts and focused on two proteins. Proteins are the cell’s building blocks and help the cell do its job. The researchers knew that a protein called PRDM16 played some part in converting a myoblast into a brown fat cell, but they had a problem. When they tricked the cell into making more of the protein in a petri dish, nothing changed, and the myoblast cells only formed more myoblasts. So the scientists looked at another protein, called C/EBP-beta. Just like the first protein, this protein did nothing on its own. But when the scientists added both proteins to the myoblast, the cell created both myoblasts and brown fat cells. They had discovered that the two proteins have to work together. Even though they were grown in a lab, from other cells, they burn energy similar to normal brown fat cells. “They certainly look like they are brown adipose tissue,” meaning brown fat tissue, Spiegelman says. There was a difference, however. Normal brown fat cells are able to regulate their energy-burning activity so the human body doesn’t get too hot. The new lab-grown cells, however, are always running on high, which means they’re burning as much energy as possible—which could cause a fever in a person. The new technique could be used in a number of different ways to help people, says Spiegelman. For example, scientists could remove cells from an obese person, change the cells so they produce brown fat, and return them to the body. Once these altered cells are back in the body, they can produce more brown fat, which would burn energy. Another method may involve injecting an obese person with a compound that could boost his or her production of brown fat cells. Right now, it’s too early to say whether or not these new brown fat cells will be able to help a person with a weight problem—but the early results are promising.

Making good, brown fat
Making good, brown fat








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™