Agriculture
Got Milk? How?
Microbes at the Gas Pump
Treating peanut allergy bit by bit
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Salamanders and Newts
Frogs and Toads
Animals
Insects Take a Breather
Clone Wars
Hot Pepper, Hot Spider
Behavior
Wake Up, Sleepy Gene
When Darwin got sick of feathers
Listening to Birdsong
Birds
A Meal Plan for Birds
Vultures
Carnivorous Birds
Chemistry and Materials
Graphene's superstrength
Lighting goes digital
A Diamond Polish for Ancient Tools
Computers
Electronic Paper Turns a Page
Getting in Touch with Touch
Galaxies far, far, far away
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Mammals in the Shadow of Dinosaurs
The bug that may have killed a dinosaur
Some Dinos Dined on Grass
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
The Pacific Ocean's Bald Spot
Earth Rocks On
Distant Quake Changes Geyser Eruptions
Environment
Whale Watch
Little Bits of Trouble
A 'Book' on Every Living Thing
Finding the Past
Meet your mysterious relative
Words of the Distant Past
An Ancient Childhood
Fish
A Grim Future for Some Killer Whales
Carp
Sharks
Food and Nutrition
Building a Food Pyramid
Eat Out, Eat Smart
Allergies: From Bee Stings to Peanuts
GSAT English Rules
Pronouns
Capitalization Rules
Order of Adjectives
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
The Annual GSAT Scholarships
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Mathematics
How to Slice a Cake Fairly
Math of the World
Setting a Prime Number Record
Human Body
Fighting Off Micro-Invader Epidemics
Sun Screen
A Long Haul
Invertebrates
Squid
Moths
Termites
Mammals
Humans
Elk
Boxers
Parents
Children and Media
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Physics
Invisibility Ring
Powering Ball Lightning
Dreams of Floating in Space
Plants
A Giant Flower's New Family
Pumping Up Poison Ivy
Flower family knows its roots
Reptiles
Box Turtles
Turtles
Tortoises
Space and Astronomy
A Planet's Slim-Fast Plan
Roving the Red Planet
Burst Busters
Technology and Engineering
Model Plane Flies the Atlantic
Algae Motors
Shape Shifting
The Parts of Speech
Problems with Prepositions
What is a Verb?
What is a Preposition?
Transportation
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Robots on the Road, Again
Ready, unplug, drive
Weather
Earth's Poles in Peril
Arctic Melt
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
Add your Article

Look into My Eyes

If you look deep into a friend's eyes, you may imagine that you can see his or her thoughts and dreams. But more likely, you'll simply see an image of yourself—and whatever lies behind you. Our eyeballs are like small, round mirrors. Covered by a layer of salty fluid (tears), their surfaces reflect light just like the surface of a pond does. From a distance, we see shiny glints in the eyes of other people, says Shree Nayar, a computer scientist at Columbia University in New York City. "If you look up close," he says, "you're actually getting a reflection of the world." By analyzing the eye reflections of people in photos, Nayar and his colleague Ko Nishino have figured out how to re-create the world reflected in someone's eyes. Nayar's computer programs can even pinpoint what a person is looking at. Giving computers the power to trace our gaze could help them interact with us in more humanlike ways. Such a capability could help historians and detectives reconstruct scenes from the past. Filmmakers, video game creators, and advertisers are finding applications of Nayar's research as well. "This is a method that people hadn't thought of before," says Columbia computer scientist Steven Feiner. "It's very exciting." Eye tracking Eye-tracking technology already exists, Feiner says, but most systems are clunky or uncomfortable to use. Users often have to keep their heads still. Or they have to wear special contact lenses or headgear so that a computer can read the movement of the centers of their eyes, or pupils. Finally, under these circumstances, users know that their eyes are being followed. That may make them act unnaturally, which could confuse the scientists who study them. Nayar's system is far stealthier. It requires only a point-and-shoot or video camera that takes high-resolution pictures of people's faces. Computers can then analyze these images to determine in which direction the people are looking. To do this, a computer program identifies the line where the iris (the colored part of the eye) meets the white of the eye. If you look directly at a camera, your cornea (the transparent outer covering of the eyeball that covers the pupil and iris) appears perfectly round. But as you glance to the side, the angle of the curve changes. A formula calculates the direction of the eye's gaze based on the shape of this curve. Next, Nayar's program determines the direction from which light is coming as it hits the eye and bounces back to the camera. The calculation is based on laws of reflection and the fact that a normal, adult cornea is shaped like a flattened circle—a curve called an ellipse. The computer uses all this information to create an "environment map"—a circular, fishbowl-like image of everything surrounding the eye. "This is the big picture of what's around the person," Nayar says. "Now, comes the interesting part," he continues. "Because I know how this ellipsoidal mirror is tilted toward the camera, and because I know in which direction the eye is looking, I can use a computer program to find exactly what the person is looking at." The computer makes these calculations rapidly, and the results are highly accurate, Nayar says. His studies show that the program figures out where people are looking to within 5 or 10 degrees. (A full circle is 360 degrees.) I spy Nayar envisions using the technology to create systems that would make life easier for people who are paralyzed. Using only their eyes and a computer to track where they are looking, such people could type, communicate, or direct a wheelchair. Psychologists are also interested in better eye-tracking devices, Nayar says. One reason is that the movements of our eyes can reveal whether we're telling the truth and how we're feeling. Advertising experts would like to know which part of an image our eyes are most drawn to so that they could create more effective ads. Also, video games that sense where players are looking could be better than existing games. Historians have already examined reflections in the eyes of people in old photographs to learn more about the settings in which they were photographed. And filmmakers are using Nayar's programs to replace one actor's face with another's face in a realistic way. Using an environment map taken from one actor's eyes, the computer program can identify every source of light in the scene. The director then re-creates the same lighting on another actor's face before digitally replacing that face with the first one. Making computers that interact with you on your terms is another long-term goal, Feiner says. Your computer could let you know about an important e-mail, for example, in a variety of ways. If you're looking away, you might want the machine to beep. If you happened to be on the phone, a flashing light might be more appropriate. And if you're looking at the computer screen, a message could pop up. "The importance of this work is that it provides a way of letting a computer know more about what it is you are seeing," Feiner says. It's leading toward machines that interact with us in ways that are more like the ways in which people interact with each other.

Look into My Eyes
Look into My Eyes








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™