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Flush-Free Fertilizer
Where Have All the Bees Gone?
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Toxic Dirt + Avian Flu = Science Fair Success
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Toxic Dirt + Avian Flu = Science Fair Success
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Some Dinos Dined on Grass
From Mammoth to Modern Elephant
Big Fish in Ancient Waters
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Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
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A Human Migration Fueled by Dung?
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How Super Are Superfruits?
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Tarrant High overcoming the odds
March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
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A Sweet Advance in Candy Packing
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Attacking Asthma
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Smiles Turn Away Colds
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Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
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Road Bumps
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Echoes of a Stretched Egg
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Bright Blooms That Glow
Fungus Hunt
White fuzzy mold not as friendly as it looks
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A Planet from the Early Universe
A Puffy Planetary Puzzle
Evidence of a Wet Mars
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Riding Sunlight
Beyond Bar Codes
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
The Parts of Speech
What is a Noun
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Transportation
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Revving Up Green Machines
Troubles with Hubble
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Recipe for a Hurricane
A Change in Climate
The Best Defense Is a Good Snow Fence
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Life under Ice

Deep below a thick slab of floating ice off Antarctica, an astounding community of creatures has surprised scientists who had expected to find nothing there. In December 2003, researchers drilled a hole through the Amery ice shelf in Antarctica. They picked a spot that was 100 kilometers (62 miles) from open ocean. And they had to dig through 480 meters (1,575 feet) of ice just to get to Once the drill broke through, a camera took pictures of a patch of seafloor that spanned 2 square meters (22 square feet). No one expected to see much that far from open ocean. Scientists didn't think that currents under the ice were strong enough to deliver food and nutrients to support life in such an environment. Creatures that live in the ocean's depths often filter food out of the water or pick food off the seafloor. In the photographs, however, the team identified more than two dozen species of sponges, mollusks, sea urchins, and other invertebrates, including a sea snail. "These creatures are no different from those that live in open water at that depth," says Martin J. Riddle, a marine biologist at the Australian Government Antarctic Division in Kingston, Tasmania. the ocean underneath. A probe measured the currents under the shelf, which were strong enough to deliver tiny creatures called microplankton to the area. Microplankton are at the bottom of the food chain. In the future, the scientists say, paleontologists shouldn't rule out the possibility that ancient communities of sea life were once covered with ice, too. It's a cold but bustling world down there.—E. Sohn

Life under Ice
Life under Ice








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