Agriculture
Chicken Eggs as Drug Factories
Earth-Friendly Fabrics
Making the most of a meal
Amphibians
Toads
Poison Dart Frogs
Newts
Animals
Baboons Listen for Who's Tops
Living in the Desert
Dolphin Sponge Moms
Behavior
Ear pain, weight gain
Mice sense each other's fear
Island of Hope
Birds
Flamingos
Pigeons
Backyard Birds
Chemistry and Materials
These gems make their own way
A Butterfly's Electric Glow
The Taste of Bubbles
Computers
Small but WISE
Look into My Eyes
Programming with Alice
Dinosaurs and Fossils
South America's sticky tar pits
Dinosaur Eggs-citement
Ancient Critter Caught Shedding Its Skin
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Recipe for a Hurricane
Deep History
Less Mixing Can Affect Lake's Ecosystem
Environment
Toxic Cleanups Get a Microbe Boost
Pollution Detective
Cactus Goo for Clean Water
Finding the Past
The Taming of the Cat
Stone Tablet May Solve Maya Mystery
Untangling Human Origins
Fish
Saltwater Fish
Bass
Sturgeons
Food and Nutrition
Building a Food Pyramid
A Taste for Cheese
Allergies: From Bee Stings to Peanuts
GSAT English Rules
Who vs. That vs. Which
Finding Subjects and Verbs
Problems with Prepositions
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT Scholarship
Tarrant High overcoming the odds
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Exam Preparation
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Mathematics
Monkeys Count
Play for Science
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
Human Body
A Sour Taste in Your Mouth
Fighting Off Micro-Invader Epidemics
Foul Play?
Invertebrates
Crawfish
Black Widow spiders
Moths
Mammals
Blue Whales
German Shepherds
Rabbits
Parents
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Physics
Einstein's Skateboard
Extra Strings for New Sounds
The Pressure of Scuba Diving
Plants
Underwater Jungles
Stalking Plants by Scent
Making the most of a meal
Reptiles
Caimans
Boa Constrictors
Gila Monsters
Space and Astronomy
A Puffy Planetary Puzzle
Killers from Outer Space
World of Three Suns
Technology and Engineering
Shape Shifting
Squeezing Oil from Old Wells
Bionic Bacteria
The Parts of Speech
Adjectives and Adverbs
Pronouns
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Transportation
Charged cars that would charge
Robots on a Rocky Road
Robots on the Road, Again
Weather
A Change in Climate
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Where rivers run uphill
Add your Article

From Mammoth to Modern Elephant

Thousands of years ago, an elephant-like creature called the woolly mammoth roamed Earth. Except for fossilized bones and remains found trapped in ice, it's now gone. Scientists have long wondered whether the extinct mammoth is more closely related to today's African elephant or Asian elephant. Modern elephants and woolly mammoths share a common ancestor that lived about 6 million years ago. Exactly how and when the species split over time, though, hasn't been clear. Now, researchers are using modern techniques to piece together ancient elephant history. From looking at fossilized bones and other features, scientists had proposed that woolly mammoths are more closely related to Asian elephants than to African elephants. Tiny pieces of evidence from the genetic material DNA, on the other hand, hinted at the opposite conclusion. Because DNA is often the most reliable way to trace evolutionary links, a team led by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, set out to document part of the mammoth genome, which is a map of the creature's DNA. Only recently has technology become available to recreate a genome based on old, damaged DNA. The scientists first took just 200 milligrams of bone from a mammoth that had lived 12,000 years ago in northeastern Siberia. Then, they used a chemical reaction to make many copies of whatever pieces remained of the mammoth's DNA. Many of the pieces overlapped, so the scientists were able to put them together, like a jigsaw puzzle, into a complete whole. In this study, the researchers focused on a type of DNA called mitochondrial DNA. It's a ring-shaped structure found inside a cell part called the mitochondrion. Analyses showed that the modern Asian elephant shares 95.8 percent of its mitochondrial DNA with the woolly mammoth. The modern African elephant has a slightly smaller overlap, sharing about 95.5 percent of its mitochondrial DNA with the woolly mammoth. The difference suggests that African elephants were the first modern species to split from the main branch of the elephant family tree. Asian elephants and woolly mammoths branched off about 440,000 years later, the scientists say. In other words, Asian elephants are more closely related to mammoths than are African elephants. The findings should be weighed cautiously, some scientists warn, because looking only at mitochondrial DNA can be misleading. Instead, a group of researchers in Canada is using new high-speed machines to analyze every piece of DNA in the nucleus of a mammoth's cell. Strands of DNA in the cell nucleus are millions of times longer than those in the mitochondrion, so the project may take a couple of years. When it's done, though, we may finally have a clear picture of the elephant family tree.E. Sohn

From Mammoth to Modern Elephant
From Mammoth to Modern Elephant








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™