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Microbes at the Gas Pump
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Salamanders and Newts
Frogs and Toads
Newts
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A Spider's Taste for Blood
Insects Take a Breather
Pothole Repair, Insect-style
Behavior
Mice sense each other's fear
Memory by Hypnosis
Pondering the puzzling platypus
Birds
Eagles
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Chemistry and Materials
When frog gender flips
The memory of a material
The Buzz about Caffeine
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Secrets of an Ancient Computer
It's a Small E-mail World After All
Graphene's superstrength
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A Dino King's Ancestor
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Earth
Snowflakes and Avalanches
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
Sky Dust Keeps Falling on Your Head
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Bald Eagles Forever
Plastic Meals for Seals
Out in the Cold
Finding the Past
An Ancient Childhood
Childhood's Long History
The Puzzle of Ancient Mariners
Fish
A Grim Future for Some Killer Whales
Sting Ray
Piranha
Food and Nutrition
Symbols from the Stone Age
Chew for Health
Strong Bones for Life
GSAT English Rules
Order of Adjectives
Who vs. That vs. Which
Problems with Prepositions
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GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
Preparing for the GSAT Exam
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GSAT Mathematics
Deep-space dancers
Prime Time for Cicadas
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
Human Body
Sea Kids See Clearly Underwater
Teen Brains, Under Construction
Taste Messenger
Invertebrates
Sea Anemones
Earthworms
Millipedes
Mammals
Golden Retrievers
Cornish Rex
Lynxes
Parents
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Children and Media
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Physics
Speedy stars
Gaining a Swift Lift
Extra Strings for New Sounds
Plants
Flower family knows its roots
Tracking the Sun Improves Plant Pollen
A Giant Flower's New Family
Reptiles
Box Turtles
Chameleons
Snapping Turtles
Space and Astronomy
Catching a Comet's Tail
Zooming In on the Wild Sun
No Fat Stars
Technology and Engineering
A Micro-Dose of Your Own Medicine
Roll-Up Computer Monitors to Go
A Light Delay
The Parts of Speech
What is a Verb?
Problems with Prepositions
Pronouns
Transportation
Where rivers run uphill
Revving Up Green Machines
Reach for the Sky
Weather
Where rivers run uphill
A Dire Shortage of Water
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
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Frogs and Toads

Frogs and toads are species of tailless amphibians, with short, squad front legs and muscular hind legs adapted for hopping or leaping. Their life cycle includes a "tadpole" phase, in which they appear almost fish-like right out of the egg, but gradually grow legs and absorb their tail. Adults may stay close to water their entire lives, or go on to live entirely on land, depending upon the species. Frogs and toads comprise the order Anura, or Salientia, one of the three main groups of amphibians. There are about 3,500 known species of frogs and 300 kinds of toads. They are found on every continent except Antarctica. Some types spend their entire life in or near water, but others live mainly on land and come to the water only to mate. A few other species never enter the water. Some frogs and toads are climbers that dwell in trees or burrowers that live underground. Generally, toads have a broader, flatter body and darker, drier, bumpy skin than most frogs. Toads also have shorter, less powerful back legs. Toads have a pair of parotoid glands located on the top of their heads. These glands produce a poison that can make people ill or cause eye irritation. Some frogs have poison glands that oozes onto their skin. If an enemy grabs the frog, the poison repels the predator. Frogs and toads are cold-blooded animals; their bodies are the same temperature as their surroundings. They avoid direct sunlight and heat and are more active at night or on rainy days. Bulging eyes give them fairly good eyesight with the ability to see in almost any direction. Most frogs also have a thin, partly clear inner eyelid called the nictitating membrane. This membrane can move upward, covering and protecting their eyes without completely blocking their vision. Most frogs hear sounds via the tympanum or eardrum disk, that is located behind each eye. Their sense of touch is also well developed, especially in those species living in water. Frogs call out to each other, mainly during the mating season. Toads and frogs have a long, sticky tongue that is hinged at the front of the mouth, allowing it to rapidly flip out and capture insect prey.

Frogs and Toads
Frogs and Toads








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