Agriculture
Watering the Air
Middle school science adventures
Fast-flying fungal spores
Amphibians
Frogs and Toads
Newts
Bullfrogs
Animals
Professor Ant
From Chimps to People
Sea Lilies on the Run
Behavior
Double take
Eating Troubles
Slumber by the numbers
Birds
Blue Jays
Ospreys
Carnivorous Birds
Chemistry and Materials
A Butterfly's Electric Glow
Scientist Profile: Wally Gilbert
Sugary Survival Skill
Computers
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Electronic Paper Turns a Page
Middle school science adventures
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Big Fish in Ancient Waters
Downsized Dinosaurs
Hall of Dinos
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
Earth
A Great Quake Coming?
Warmest Year on Record
Detecting an Eerie Sea Glow
Environment
Nanosponges Soak Up Pollutants
Groundwater and the Water Cycle
Pollution Detective
Finding the Past
The Taming of the Cat
Decoding a Beverage Jar
Little People Cause Big Surprise
Fish
Puffer Fish
Whale Sharks
Carp
Food and Nutrition
Making good, brown fat
Moving Good Fats from Fish to Mice
Packing Fat
GSAT English Rules
Who vs. That vs. Which
Subject and Verb Agreement
Who vs. Whom
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
The Annual GSAT Scholarships
Tarrant High overcoming the odds
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT Mathematics
Play for Science
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
Setting a Prime Number Record
Human Body
Heavy Sleep
A Fix for Injured Knees
Dreaming makes perfect
Invertebrates
Mosquitos
Sponges
Squid
Mammals
Ferrets
Basset Hounds
African Elephants
Parents
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
How children learn
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Physics
Speedy stars
Gaining a Swift Lift
Powering Ball Lightning
Plants
Springing forward
Fast-flying fungal spores
Tracking the Sun Improves Plant Pollen
Reptiles
Anacondas
Crocodiles
Box Turtles
Space and Astronomy
Melting Snow on Mars
A Dusty Birthplace
Rover Makes Splash on Mars
Technology and Engineering
Drawing Energy out of Wastewater
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Crime Lab
The Parts of Speech
What is a Noun
Pronouns
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Transportation
Ready, unplug, drive
How to Fly Like a Bat
Robots on a Rocky Road
Weather
Either Martians or Mars has gas
Warmest Year on Record
Recipe for a Hurricane
Add your Article

Flu river

What if the solution to one problem causes other problems down the road? That may be the case in the ongoing struggle to fight the flu. Flu season is almost here, which means more and more people may be taking Tamiflu in the months ahead. Tamiflu is a popular anti-flu drug that treats both seasonal flu strains and the new H1N1 flu, an unpredictable disease better known as swine flu. But this increased use of Tamiflu may be introducing new problems. A team of Japanese scientists recently studied three rivers in Japan and found them to be contaminated with Tamiflu’s active ingredient, oseltamivir carboxylate or OC. They found the same contamination in the water discharged from local sewage plants, water that ends up in those rivers. People excreted the drug in their urine, and water discharged from the sewage plants carried it to the rivers. Sewage treatment plants are designed to remove germs and solids from the wastes dispensed by household toilets, but many drugs can get through. OC is one of those escaping drugs. OC in the water may be a serious problem for birds — and for people. Here’s why: The flu, short for influenza, is caused by a virus, a tiny organism that invades living cells and turns them against the body. There is not one flu-causing virus; there are many. These many viruses are constantly evolving, or changing in order to survive. They find new ways to infect people and animals, and every year new kinds of flu show up. Birds are natural carriers of many flu-causing viruses. If a bird drinks water polluted with OC, that bird may be able to fight off the types of flu that Tamiflu treats. As a result, new flus — flus that can’t be cured by Tamiflu — may start to develop in the bird. Once a drug-resistant flu grows in the bird, that bird can pass it on to other animals. This new, stronger flu could eventually start infecting people. And that could mean big trouble, since Tamiflu would not help people fight this stronger flu.. The Japanese study was led by Gopal Ghosh, a scientist at Kyoto University. Ghosh and his team collected water from two places: sewage treatment plants and the rivers that carried away the treated wastewater dispensed by the plants. They first collected samples in December of last year, when the flu season was starting. They collected more water samples in February, when the flu was bad, and collected a third set of samples later. The scientists found OC in the sewage samples every time. They found a higher concentration in the second set of samples, from February. That’s when the flu was at its worst, and 1,738 cases were recorded in Kyoto. At the same time, in the second set of samples taken in February, the scientists found OC in the river water as well. The OC did not show up in the river in the first and third set of samples. Scientists have known for years that sewage treatment plants do not remove OC from the water. Jerker Fick, an environmental chemist at Umeå University in Sweden, published a study two years ago that showed that most water treatment plants removed “zero percent” — or none — of the OC. In fact, Fick says, almost all the Tamiflu ingested by a human being will end up in the environment as OC. And when the OC comes out of the sewage treatment plants, the birds will be ready. Ducks, for example, love to swim in the warm waters just downstream of those plants during the coldest months — during flu season. “I saw it myself,” Fick says.

Flu river
Flu river








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™