Agriculture
Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
Watching out for vultures
Chicken Eggs as Drug Factories
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Frogs and Toads
Poison Dart Frogs
Animals
A Meal Plan for Birds
Life on the Down Low
Polly Shouldn't Get a Cracker
Behavior
Memory by Hypnosis
Math Naturals
Reading Body Language
Birds
Hummingbirds
Penguins
Peafowl
Chemistry and Materials
Nanomagnets Corral Oil
Putting the Squeeze on Toothpaste
Undercover Detectives
Computers
Troubles with Hubble
Two monkeys see a more colorful world
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Fingerprinting Fossils
Dino Takeout for Mammals
A Living Fossil
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
Earth
Quick Quake Alerts
Shrinking Glaciers
Farms sprout in cities
Environment
Island Extinctions
The Wolf and the Cow
City Trees Beat Country Trees
Finding the Past
Of Lice and Old Clothes
Big Woman of the Distant Past
A Long Haul
Fish
Sturgeons
Marlin
Skates and Rays
Food and Nutrition
Making good, brown fat
Yummy bugs
A Taste for Cheese
GSAT English Rules
Pronouns
Who vs. Whom
Adjectives and Adverbs
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT Mathematics
GSAT Mathematics Quiz, Teaching Math, teaching anxiety
Detecting True Art
Losing with Heads or Tails
Human Body
Running with Sneaker Science
Foul Play?
Spitting Up Blobs to Get Around
Invertebrates
Dust Mites
Ticks
Arachnids
Mammals
Scottish Folds
Bloodhounds
African Wildedbeest
Parents
Children and Media
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Physics
Gaining a Swift Lift
Spin, Splat, and Scramble
Invisibility Ring
Plants
Hungry bug seeks hot meal
Fungus Hunt
Seeds of the Future
Reptiles
Box Turtles
Garter Snakes
Geckos
Space and Astronomy
Cool as a Jupiter
Evidence of a Wet Mars
A Planet from the Early Universe
Technology and Engineering
Reach for the Sky
Smart Windows
Young Scientists Take Flight
The Parts of Speech
What is a Verb?
Problems with Prepositions
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Transportation
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Flying the Hyper Skies
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Weather
A Dire Shortage of Water
Arctic Melt
Watering the Air
Add your Article

Flu river

What if the solution to one problem causes other problems down the road? That may be the case in the ongoing struggle to fight the flu. Flu season is almost here, which means more and more people may be taking Tamiflu in the months ahead. Tamiflu is a popular anti-flu drug that treats both seasonal flu strains and the new H1N1 flu, an unpredictable disease better known as swine flu. But this increased use of Tamiflu may be introducing new problems. A team of Japanese scientists recently studied three rivers in Japan and found them to be contaminated with Tamiflu’s active ingredient, oseltamivir carboxylate or OC. They found the same contamination in the water discharged from local sewage plants, water that ends up in those rivers. People excreted the drug in their urine, and water discharged from the sewage plants carried it to the rivers. Sewage treatment plants are designed to remove germs and solids from the wastes dispensed by household toilets, but many drugs can get through. OC is one of those escaping drugs. OC in the water may be a serious problem for birds — and for people. Here’s why: The flu, short for influenza, is caused by a virus, a tiny organism that invades living cells and turns them against the body. There is not one flu-causing virus; there are many. These many viruses are constantly evolving, or changing in order to survive. They find new ways to infect people and animals, and every year new kinds of flu show up. Birds are natural carriers of many flu-causing viruses. If a bird drinks water polluted with OC, that bird may be able to fight off the types of flu that Tamiflu treats. As a result, new flus — flus that can’t be cured by Tamiflu — may start to develop in the bird. Once a drug-resistant flu grows in the bird, that bird can pass it on to other animals. This new, stronger flu could eventually start infecting people. And that could mean big trouble, since Tamiflu would not help people fight this stronger flu.. The Japanese study was led by Gopal Ghosh, a scientist at Kyoto University. Ghosh and his team collected water from two places: sewage treatment plants and the rivers that carried away the treated wastewater dispensed by the plants. They first collected samples in December of last year, when the flu season was starting. They collected more water samples in February, when the flu was bad, and collected a third set of samples later. The scientists found OC in the sewage samples every time. They found a higher concentration in the second set of samples, from February. That’s when the flu was at its worst, and 1,738 cases were recorded in Kyoto. At the same time, in the second set of samples taken in February, the scientists found OC in the river water as well. The OC did not show up in the river in the first and third set of samples. Scientists have known for years that sewage treatment plants do not remove OC from the water. Jerker Fick, an environmental chemist at Umeå University in Sweden, published a study two years ago that showed that most water treatment plants removed “zero percent” — or none — of the OC. In fact, Fick says, almost all the Tamiflu ingested by a human being will end up in the environment as OC. And when the OC comes out of the sewage treatment plants, the birds will be ready. Ducks, for example, love to swim in the warm waters just downstream of those plants during the coldest months — during flu season. “I saw it myself,” Fick says.

Flu river
Flu river








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™