Agriculture
Fast-flying fungal spores
New Gene Fights Potato Blight
Flush-Free Fertilizer
Amphibians
Newts
Toads
Bullfrogs
Animals
Copybees
Cannibal Crickets
Odor-Chasing Penguins
Behavior
A Recipe for Happiness
Mice sense each other's fear
Newly named fish crawls and hops
Birds
Storks
Backyard Birds
Swans
Chemistry and Materials
The Buzz about Caffeine
Smelly Traps for Lampreys
Atomic Drive
Computers
Batteries built by Viruses
Middle school science adventures
It's a Small E-mail World After All
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Dinosaur Dig
Mammals in the Shadow of Dinosaurs
Meet your mysterious relative
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
Earth
Ice Age Melting and Rising Seas
Deep Drilling at Sea
Killer Space Rock Snuffed Out Ancient Life
Environment
Fishing for Fun Takes Toll
Giant snakes invading North America
Swimming with Sharks and Stingrays
Finding the Past
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
Childhood's Long History
Chicken of the Sea
Fish
Hammerhead Sharks
Saltwater Fish
Piranha
Food and Nutrition
Sponges' secret weapon
A Pepper Part that Burns Fat
The mercury in that tuna
GSAT English Rules
Who vs. That vs. Which
Capitalization Rules
Order of Adjectives
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Preparing for the GSAT Exam
Scotiabank Jamaica Foundation Grade Six Achievement Test (GSAT) Scholarships
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Scholarship
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT Mathematics
Play for Science
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
Human Body
Music in the Brain
Tapeworms and Drug Delivery
From Stem Cell to Any Cell
Invertebrates
Hermit Crabs
Ants
Earthworms
Mammals
Dogs
Great Danes
Llamas
Parents
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Physics
The Mirror Universe of Antimatter
Project Music
Gaining a Swift Lift
Plants
Hungry bug seeks hot meal
A Change in Leaf Color
White fuzzy mold not as friendly as it looks
Reptiles
Snapping Turtles
Sea Turtles
Komodo Dragons
Space and Astronomy
A Planet's Slim-Fast Plan
A Darker, Warmer Red Planet
Planet Hunters Nab Three More
Technology and Engineering
Squeezing Oil from Old Wells
Switchable Lenses Improve Vision
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
The Parts of Speech
What is a Verb?
Problems with Prepositions
What is a Noun
Transportation
Flying the Hyper Skies
Troubles with Hubble
How to Fly Like a Bat
Weather
A Dire Shortage of Water
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Recipe for a Hurricane
Add your Article

Chameleons

Chameleons are known for their ability to change their color, their elongated, sticky tongue, and for their eyes which can be moved independently of each other. The name "chameleon" means "earth lion" and is derived from the Greek words chamai (on the ground, on the earth) and leon (lion). Sizes and Scales: Chameleons vary greatly in size and body structure, from the less than 4" Brookesia species, to the 24" Calumma parsonii. There is even one species, thought to be unique to Malawi's Mount Mulanje, that is barely 1.5cm across when fully grown. Festive Faces: Many have head or facial ornamentation, be it nasal protrusions or even horn-like projections in the case of Chamaeleo jacksonii, or large crests on top of their head, like Chamaeleo calyptratus. Sizes and Sexes: Many species are sexually dimorphic, and males are typically much more ornamented than the females. Eyes, Tongue, Ears, and Toes: The main things chameleon species do have in common is their foot structure, their eyes, their lack of ears, and their tongue. Divided Digits: Chameleons have feet that are split into two main "fingers", with a soft pad in between. These "fingers" are equipped with sharp claws to gain traction on surfaces such as bark when climbing. An interesting fact about chameleons is that they have two claws on the outside of their front foot and three on the inside, yet on the back foot this is reversed. Incredible Eyes: Their eyes are the most distinctive among the reptiles. The upper and lower eyelids are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil to see through. They can rotate and focus separately to observe two different objects simultaneously. It in effect gives them a full 360 degree arc of vision around their body. When prey is located, both eyes can be focused in the same direction, giving sharp stereoscopic vision and depth perception. Hard of Hearing: They lack a vomeronasal organ. Like snakes, they don't have an outer or a middle ear and seem to be deaf; at least they cannot detect airborne sounds. But some, maybe all, can communicate via vibrations that travel through solid material like branches. Tons of Tongue: Chameleons have incredibly long tongues (sometimes longer than their own body length) which they are capable of extending out of the mouth at a rapid rate. It has a sticky tip on the end which serves to catch prey items that they would otherwise never be able to reach with their lack of locomotive speed. The tongue's tip is a bulbous ball of muscle, and as it hits its prey, the tongue rapidly forms a small suction cup. Once the tongue sticks to a prey item, it is drawn quickly back into the mouth, where the chameleon's strong jaws crush it and it is consumed. Even a small chameleon is capable of eating a large locust or mantis. Where in the World? The main distribution of chameleons is Africa and Madagascar, and other tropical regions, although some species are also found in parts of southern Europe, Sri Lanka, India and Asia Minor. There are introduced, feral populations of veiled and Jackson's chameleons in Hawaii and isolated pockets of feral Jackson's chameleons have been reported in California and Florida. All in the Family: Different members of this family inhabit all kinds of biotopes like tropical and montane rain forests, savannas and sometimes semi-deserts and steppes. Chameleons are mostly arboreal and are often found in trees or occasionally on smaller bushes. Some smaller species, however, live on the ground under foliage. The chameleon is "battling" humans for their space and habitat. What's for Dinner? Chameleons generally eat locusts, mantids, crickets, and other insects, but larger chameleons have been known to eat small birds. However, contrary to popular belief, most full grown chameleons tend not to eat flies. A few species, such as Chamaeleo calyptratus have been known to consume small amounts of plant matter. Chameleons prefer running water to still water. Color Communication: Some chameleon species are able to change their body color, which has made them one of the most famous lizard families. Contrary to popular belief, this change of color is not purely an adaptation to the surroundings (although the surroundings play a large part) but also an expression of the physical and physiological condition of the lizard. The skin color is changed under influence of mood, light, and temperature. The skin color also plays an important part in communication and rivalry fights. Color Decoded: Chameleons have specialized cells, collectively called chromatophores, that lie in layers under their transparent outer skin. The cells in the upper layer, called xanthophores and erythrophores, contain yellow and red pigments respectively. Below these is another layer of cells called iridophores (or guanophores), and they contain the colorless crystalline substance guanine. These reflect amongst others the blue part of incident light. If the upper layer of chromatophores appear mainly yellow, the reflected light becomes green (blue plus yellow). A layer of dark melanin containing melanophores is situated even deeper under the reflective iridophores. The melanophores influence the 'lightness' of the reflected light. All these different pigment cells can rapidly relocate their pigments, thereby influencing the color of the chameleon. Birds and Bees: Most chameleons lay eggs, which lie buried for up to 9 months before hatching. Newborn chameleons are surprisingly independent, due to the fact that their parents will have moved away from the clutch long before its hatching. Some species, like Chameleo jacksonii give live birth. Clutch size varies greatly between species, smaller chameleons typically have smaller litters. The young grows on its own.

Chameleons
Chameleons








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™