Agriculture
Treating peanut allergy bit by bit
Silk’s superpowers
Seeds of the Future
Amphibians
Salamanders
Newts
Frogs and Toads
Animals
Mouse Songs
Ant Invasions Change the Rules
Pothole Repair, Insect-style
Behavior
Math is a real brain bender
Brainy bees know two from three
A Light Delay
Birds
Rheas
Albatrosses
Parrots
Chemistry and Materials
Earth from the inside out
Sweeeet! The Skinny on Sugar Substitutes
Unscrambling a Gem of a Mystery
Computers
Play for Science
Nonstop Robot
A New Look at Saturn's rings
Dinosaurs and Fossils
A Living Fossil
Mini T. rex
Message in a dinosaur's teeth
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
Earth
Earth from the inside out
The Rise of Yellowstone
Ice Age Melting and Rising Seas
Environment
Eating Up Foul Sewage Smells
The Down Side of Keeping Clean
Indoor ozone stopper
Finding the Past
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
Stone Age Sole Survivors
The Taming of the Cat
Fish
Mako Sharks
Piranha
Lampreys
Food and Nutrition
Strong Bones for Life
Symbols from the Stone Age
Yummy bugs
GSAT English Rules
Problems with Prepositions
Subject and Verb Agreement
Order of Adjectives
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Exam Preparation
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Mathematics
Math of the World
A Sweet Advance in Candy Packing
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
Human Body
Hey batter, wake up!
Heavy Sleep
Sun Screen
Invertebrates
Black Widow spiders
Giant Clam
Termites
Mammals
Sheep
Marsupials
Elephants
Parents
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
How children learn
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Physics
The Mirror Universe of Antimatter
The Particle Zoo
Invisibility Ring
Plants
The algae invasion
Stalking Plants by Scent
Sweet, Sticky Science
Reptiles
Copperhead Snakes
Geckos
Tortoises
Space and Astronomy
Saturn's Spongy Moon
Icy Red Planet
Super Star Cluster in the Neighborhood
Technology and Engineering
Sugar Power for Cell Phones
Model Plane Flies the Atlantic
Spinach Power for Solar Cells
The Parts of Speech
What is a Preposition?
Adjectives and Adverbs
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Flying the Hyper Skies
Weather
Where rivers run uphill
Arctic Melt
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Add your Article

Chameleons

Chameleons are known for their ability to change their color, their elongated, sticky tongue, and for their eyes which can be moved independently of each other. The name "chameleon" means "earth lion" and is derived from the Greek words chamai (on the ground, on the earth) and leon (lion). Sizes and Scales: Chameleons vary greatly in size and body structure, from the less than 4" Brookesia species, to the 24" Calumma parsonii. There is even one species, thought to be unique to Malawi's Mount Mulanje, that is barely 1.5cm across when fully grown. Festive Faces: Many have head or facial ornamentation, be it nasal protrusions or even horn-like projections in the case of Chamaeleo jacksonii, or large crests on top of their head, like Chamaeleo calyptratus. Sizes and Sexes: Many species are sexually dimorphic, and males are typically much more ornamented than the females. Eyes, Tongue, Ears, and Toes: The main things chameleon species do have in common is their foot structure, their eyes, their lack of ears, and their tongue. Divided Digits: Chameleons have feet that are split into two main "fingers", with a soft pad in between. These "fingers" are equipped with sharp claws to gain traction on surfaces such as bark when climbing. An interesting fact about chameleons is that they have two claws on the outside of their front foot and three on the inside, yet on the back foot this is reversed. Incredible Eyes: Their eyes are the most distinctive among the reptiles. The upper and lower eyelids are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil to see through. They can rotate and focus separately to observe two different objects simultaneously. It in effect gives them a full 360 degree arc of vision around their body. When prey is located, both eyes can be focused in the same direction, giving sharp stereoscopic vision and depth perception. Hard of Hearing: They lack a vomeronasal organ. Like snakes, they don't have an outer or a middle ear and seem to be deaf; at least they cannot detect airborne sounds. But some, maybe all, can communicate via vibrations that travel through solid material like branches. Tons of Tongue: Chameleons have incredibly long tongues (sometimes longer than their own body length) which they are capable of extending out of the mouth at a rapid rate. It has a sticky tip on the end which serves to catch prey items that they would otherwise never be able to reach with their lack of locomotive speed. The tongue's tip is a bulbous ball of muscle, and as it hits its prey, the tongue rapidly forms a small suction cup. Once the tongue sticks to a prey item, it is drawn quickly back into the mouth, where the chameleon's strong jaws crush it and it is consumed. Even a small chameleon is capable of eating a large locust or mantis. Where in the World? The main distribution of chameleons is Africa and Madagascar, and other tropical regions, although some species are also found in parts of southern Europe, Sri Lanka, India and Asia Minor. There are introduced, feral populations of veiled and Jackson's chameleons in Hawaii and isolated pockets of feral Jackson's chameleons have been reported in California and Florida. All in the Family: Different members of this family inhabit all kinds of biotopes like tropical and montane rain forests, savannas and sometimes semi-deserts and steppes. Chameleons are mostly arboreal and are often found in trees or occasionally on smaller bushes. Some smaller species, however, live on the ground under foliage. The chameleon is "battling" humans for their space and habitat. What's for Dinner? Chameleons generally eat locusts, mantids, crickets, and other insects, but larger chameleons have been known to eat small birds. However, contrary to popular belief, most full grown chameleons tend not to eat flies. A few species, such as Chamaeleo calyptratus have been known to consume small amounts of plant matter. Chameleons prefer running water to still water. Color Communication: Some chameleon species are able to change their body color, which has made them one of the most famous lizard families. Contrary to popular belief, this change of color is not purely an adaptation to the surroundings (although the surroundings play a large part) but also an expression of the physical and physiological condition of the lizard. The skin color is changed under influence of mood, light, and temperature. The skin color also plays an important part in communication and rivalry fights. Color Decoded: Chameleons have specialized cells, collectively called chromatophores, that lie in layers under their transparent outer skin. The cells in the upper layer, called xanthophores and erythrophores, contain yellow and red pigments respectively. Below these is another layer of cells called iridophores (or guanophores), and they contain the colorless crystalline substance guanine. These reflect amongst others the blue part of incident light. If the upper layer of chromatophores appear mainly yellow, the reflected light becomes green (blue plus yellow). A layer of dark melanin containing melanophores is situated even deeper under the reflective iridophores. The melanophores influence the 'lightness' of the reflected light. All these different pigment cells can rapidly relocate their pigments, thereby influencing the color of the chameleon. Birds and Bees: Most chameleons lay eggs, which lie buried for up to 9 months before hatching. Newborn chameleons are surprisingly independent, due to the fact that their parents will have moved away from the clutch long before its hatching. Some species, like Chameleo jacksonii give live birth. Clutch size varies greatly between species, smaller chameleons typically have smaller litters. The young grows on its own.

Chameleons
Chameleons








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™