Agriculture
Treating peanut allergy bit by bit
Got Milk? How?
Keeping Bugs Away from Food
Amphibians
Tree Frogs
Toads
Salamanders and Newts
Animals
A Jellyfish's Blurry View
From Chimps to People
Ant Invasions Change the Rules
Behavior
Lightening Your Mood
Brainy bees know two from three
Talking with Hands
Birds
Robins
Vultures
Flamingos
Chemistry and Materials
Atom Hauler
Heaviest named element is official
Supergoo to the rescue
Computers
Music of the Future
The science of disappearing
Lighting goes digital
Dinosaurs and Fossils
The man who rocked biology to its core
Some Dinos Dined on Grass
A Living Fossil
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Meteorites may have sparked life on Earth
Shrinking Glaciers
On the Trail of America's Next Top Scientists
Environment
Animal CSI or from Science Lab to Crime Lab
The Birds are Falling
A Stormy History
Finding the Past
The Puzzle of Ancient Mariners
Big Woman of the Distant Past
Meet your mysterious relative
Fish
Lungfish
Puffer Fish
Tiger Sharks
Food and Nutrition
Eat Out, Eat Smart
A Pepper Part that Burns Fat
Chocolate Rules
GSAT English Rules
Problems with Prepositions
Adjectives and Adverbs
Finding Subjects and Verbs
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
How are students placed after passing the GSAT exam
Ministry of Education Announces 82 GSAT Scholarships for 2010
March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Mathematics
Setting a Prime Number Record
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
Math is a real brain bender
Human Body
Nature's Medicines
Gut Microbes and Weight
Sleeping Soundly for a Longer Life
Invertebrates
Lobsters
Tapeworms
Mussels
Mammals
Miscellaneous Mammals
Marsupials
Chinchillas
Parents
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Children and Media
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Physics
Strange Universe: The Stuff of Darkness
Black Hole Journey
Gaining a Swift Lift
Plants
Stalking Plants by Scent
Getting the dirt on carbon
City Trees Beat Country Trees
Reptiles
Iguanas
Crocodilians
Tortoises
Space and Astronomy
Witnessing a Rare Venus Eclipse
Ringing Saturn
Older Stars, New Age for the Universe
Technology and Engineering
Weaving with Light
Sugar Power for Cell Phones
Musclebots Take Some Steps
The Parts of Speech
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Adjectives and Adverbs
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Reach for the Sky
Robots on the Road, Again
Troubles with Hubble
Weather
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Polar Ice Feels the Heat
A Change in Climate
Add your Article

Chameleons

Chameleons are known for their ability to change their color, their elongated, sticky tongue, and for their eyes which can be moved independently of each other. The name "chameleon" means "earth lion" and is derived from the Greek words chamai (on the ground, on the earth) and leon (lion). Sizes and Scales: Chameleons vary greatly in size and body structure, from the less than 4" Brookesia species, to the 24" Calumma parsonii. There is even one species, thought to be unique to Malawi's Mount Mulanje, that is barely 1.5cm across when fully grown. Festive Faces: Many have head or facial ornamentation, be it nasal protrusions or even horn-like projections in the case of Chamaeleo jacksonii, or large crests on top of their head, like Chamaeleo calyptratus. Sizes and Sexes: Many species are sexually dimorphic, and males are typically much more ornamented than the females. Eyes, Tongue, Ears, and Toes: The main things chameleon species do have in common is their foot structure, their eyes, their lack of ears, and their tongue. Divided Digits: Chameleons have feet that are split into two main "fingers", with a soft pad in between. These "fingers" are equipped with sharp claws to gain traction on surfaces such as bark when climbing. An interesting fact about chameleons is that they have two claws on the outside of their front foot and three on the inside, yet on the back foot this is reversed. Incredible Eyes: Their eyes are the most distinctive among the reptiles. The upper and lower eyelids are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil to see through. They can rotate and focus separately to observe two different objects simultaneously. It in effect gives them a full 360 degree arc of vision around their body. When prey is located, both eyes can be focused in the same direction, giving sharp stereoscopic vision and depth perception. Hard of Hearing: They lack a vomeronasal organ. Like snakes, they don't have an outer or a middle ear and seem to be deaf; at least they cannot detect airborne sounds. But some, maybe all, can communicate via vibrations that travel through solid material like branches. Tons of Tongue: Chameleons have incredibly long tongues (sometimes longer than their own body length) which they are capable of extending out of the mouth at a rapid rate. It has a sticky tip on the end which serves to catch prey items that they would otherwise never be able to reach with their lack of locomotive speed. The tongue's tip is a bulbous ball of muscle, and as it hits its prey, the tongue rapidly forms a small suction cup. Once the tongue sticks to a prey item, it is drawn quickly back into the mouth, where the chameleon's strong jaws crush it and it is consumed. Even a small chameleon is capable of eating a large locust or mantis. Where in the World? The main distribution of chameleons is Africa and Madagascar, and other tropical regions, although some species are also found in parts of southern Europe, Sri Lanka, India and Asia Minor. There are introduced, feral populations of veiled and Jackson's chameleons in Hawaii and isolated pockets of feral Jackson's chameleons have been reported in California and Florida. All in the Family: Different members of this family inhabit all kinds of biotopes like tropical and montane rain forests, savannas and sometimes semi-deserts and steppes. Chameleons are mostly arboreal and are often found in trees or occasionally on smaller bushes. Some smaller species, however, live on the ground under foliage. The chameleon is "battling" humans for their space and habitat. What's for Dinner? Chameleons generally eat locusts, mantids, crickets, and other insects, but larger chameleons have been known to eat small birds. However, contrary to popular belief, most full grown chameleons tend not to eat flies. A few species, such as Chamaeleo calyptratus have been known to consume small amounts of plant matter. Chameleons prefer running water to still water. Color Communication: Some chameleon species are able to change their body color, which has made them one of the most famous lizard families. Contrary to popular belief, this change of color is not purely an adaptation to the surroundings (although the surroundings play a large part) but also an expression of the physical and physiological condition of the lizard. The skin color is changed under influence of mood, light, and temperature. The skin color also plays an important part in communication and rivalry fights. Color Decoded: Chameleons have specialized cells, collectively called chromatophores, that lie in layers under their transparent outer skin. The cells in the upper layer, called xanthophores and erythrophores, contain yellow and red pigments respectively. Below these is another layer of cells called iridophores (or guanophores), and they contain the colorless crystalline substance guanine. These reflect amongst others the blue part of incident light. If the upper layer of chromatophores appear mainly yellow, the reflected light becomes green (blue plus yellow). A layer of dark melanin containing melanophores is situated even deeper under the reflective iridophores. The melanophores influence the 'lightness' of the reflected light. All these different pigment cells can rapidly relocate their pigments, thereby influencing the color of the chameleon. Birds and Bees: Most chameleons lay eggs, which lie buried for up to 9 months before hatching. Newborn chameleons are surprisingly independent, due to the fact that their parents will have moved away from the clutch long before its hatching. Some species, like Chameleo jacksonii give live birth. Clutch size varies greatly between species, smaller chameleons typically have smaller litters. The young grows on its own.

Chameleons
Chameleons








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™