Agriculture
Getting the dirt on carbon
Cleaning Up Fish Farms
Got Milk? How?
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Toads
Frogs and Toads
Animals
Pothole Repair, Insect-style
Not Slippery When Wet
A Microbe Nanny for Young Wasps
Behavior
Why Cats Nap and Whales Snooze
Mind-reading Machine
Night of the living ants
Birds
Flamingos
Tropical Birds
Roadrunners
Chemistry and Materials
Meteorites may have sparked life on Earth
The science of disappearing
Batteries built by Viruses
Computers
Galaxies far, far, far away
The Book of Life
Toxic Dirt + Avian Flu = Science Fair Success
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Mammals in the Shadow of Dinosaurs
Dinosaur Eggs-citement
Message in a dinosaur's teeth
E Learning Jamaica
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Rodent Rubbish as an Ice-Age Thermometer
Earth from the inside out
Springing forward
Environment
Ready, unplug, drive
Inspired by Nature
Spotty Survival
Finding the Past
Traces of Ancient Campfires
A Big Discovery about Little People
Settling the Americas
Fish
A Grim Future for Some Killer Whales
Dogfish
Eels
Food and Nutrition
Turning to Sweets, Fats to Calm the Brain
A Pepper Part that Burns Fat
Healing Honey
GSAT English Rules
Subject and Verb Agreement
Problems with Prepositions
Finding Subjects and Verbs
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
Scotiabank Jamaica Foundation Grade Six Achievement Test (GSAT) Scholarships
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Exam Preparation
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Mathematics
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
Play for Science
Human Body
Sun Screen
Dreaming makes perfect
Heavy Sleep
Invertebrates
Flatworms
Arachnids
Bedbugs
Mammals
Chinchillas
Felines
Woolly Mammoths
Parents
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Physics
Gaining a Swift Lift
IceCube Science
Road Bumps
Plants
City Trees Beat Country Trees
Seeds of the Future
White fuzzy mold not as friendly as it looks
Reptiles
Asp
Tortoises
Garter Snakes
Space and Astronomy
Roving the Red Planet
Saturn's Spongy Moon
An Icy Blob of Fluff
Technology and Engineering
Reach for the Sky
Algae Motors
Roll-Up Computer Monitors to Go
The Parts of Speech
Pronouns
Problems with Prepositions
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Robots on the Road, Again
Flying the Hyper Skies
Weather
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
Science loses out when ice caps melt
Either Martians or Mars has gas
Add your Article

Caribou

Although they are called by different names in North America, wild caribou and domestic reindeer are considered to be a single species throughout the world. Caribou are rather large members of the deer family. Their broad, concave hoofs spread to aid walking on soft ground and are good for digging in snow. Both sexes grow antlers that in males serve as sexual ornaments and weapons for fighting rivals during the breeding season. Weight: The weight of a female varies between 60 and 170 kg. In some subspecies of reindeer, the male is slightly larger; in others, the male can weigh up to 300 kg. Antlers: Both sexes grow antlers, which (in the Scandinavian variety) for old males fall off in December, for young males in the spring and for females during the summer. The antlers typically have two separate groups of points, a lower and upper. Domesticated animals (reindeer) are shorter-legged and heavier than their wild counterparts (caribou). The caribou of North America can run at speeds of almost 50 miles per hour and may travel 3,000 miles in a year. Diet: Reindeer are ruminants, having a four-chambered stomach. They mainly eat lichens in winter, especially reindeer moss. However, they also eat the leaves of willows and birches, as well as sedges and grasses. They can also eat voles (lat. Clethrionomys glareolus), lemmings (lat. Lemmus lemmus), birds and bird eggs. Antler Regrowth: Reindeer antlers grow again each year under a layer of fur called velvet. Noses: Reindeer have specialized noses featuring nasal turbinate bones that dramatically increase the surface area within the nostrils. Incoming cold air is warmed by the animal's body heat before entering the lungs, and water is condensed from the expired air and captured before the deer's breath is exhaled, used to moisten dry incoming air and possibly absorbed into the blood through the mucous membranes. Hooves: Reindeer hooves adapt to the season: in the summer, when the tundra is soft and wet, the footpads become spongy and provide extra traction. In the winter, the pads shrink and tighten, exposing the rim of the hoof which cuts into the ice and crusted snow to keep the animal from slipping. Coat: The reindeer coat has two layers of fur, a dense woolly undercoat and longer-haired overcoat consisting of hollow, air-filled hairs. A caribou or reindeer swims easily and fast; migrating herds will not hesitate to swim across a large lake or broad river. Distribution:The reindeer is distributed throughout a number of northern locales. Reindeer are found throughout Scandinavia (including Iceland); in Finland; at Spitsbergen; in Russian Europe including Northern Russia and Novaya Zemlya; in Russian Asia, to the Pacific Ocean; in North America on Greenland, Canada and Alaska. In 1952 reindeer were re-introduced to Scotland, as the natural stock had become extinct in the 10th century. Domesticated reindeer are mostly found in Northern Scandinavia and Russia, and wild reindeer are mostly found in North America, Greenland and Iceland (introduced by humans in the 18th century). The last wild reindeer in Europe are found in habitats in southern Norway. Its natural occurrence is approximately bounded within the 62 latitude. Migration: In the wild, most caribou migrate in large herds between their birthing habitat and their winter habitat. Their wide hooves help the animals move through snow and tundra; they also help propel the animal when it swims. About 1 million live in Alaska, and a comparable number live in northern Canada. Eurasia: There are an estimated 5 million reindeer in Eurasia, mainly semi-domesticated. The last remaining European herds of the genetic wild reindeer are found in central Norway, mainly in the mountainous areas of Rondane, Hardangervidda, Dovre and Forollhogna. Other areas, such as Filefjell, have populations of reindeer that have been herded in the past but are now left free. Wild reindeer are considered to be very vulnerable to human disturbance, especially during the calving period in April. Social Behavior: Males usually split apart from the group and become solitary, while the remaining herd consists mostly of females, usually a matriarchy. Natural threats: Natural threats to caribou include avalanches and predators such as wolves, wolverines, lynxes, and bears. Humans started hunting reindeer in the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods. Ravens can indirectly kill caribou calves by blinding them (eating their eyes). Parasites include warble flies, mosquitoes, and nose bot flies. Roundworms and tapeworms can also afflict reindeer. Diseases: Diseases include brucellosis, foot rot, and keratitis (white-eye, an infection of the eye). Herded By: Reindeer have been herded for centuries by the Sami people of Lapland. They are raised for their meat, hides and antlers, and (especially formerly) also for milk and transportation. Reindeer are not considered fully domesticated, as they generally roam free on pasture grounds. In traditional nomadic herding reindeer herders migrated with their herds between coast and inland areas according to an annual migration route, and herds were keenly tended. However, reindeer have never been bred in captivity, though they were tamed for milking as well as for use as draught animals or beasts ofburden. Reindeer As Livestock: The use of reindeer as semi-domesticated livestock in Alaska was introduced in the late 1800s by Sheldon Jackson as a means of providing a livelihood for Native peoples there. A regular mail run in Wales, Alaska used a sleigh drawn by reindeer. In Alaska, reindeer herders use satellite telemetry to track their herds, using online maps and databases to chart the herd's progress. Caribou Hunting: Wild caribou are still hunted in North America. In the traditional lifestyle of the Inuit people, Northern First Nations people, and Alaska Natives the caribou is a source of food, clothing, shelter and tools. Economic Role: The reindeer has (or has had) an important economic role for all circumpolar peoples, including the Sami, Nenets, Khants, Evenks, Yukaghirs, Chukchi and Koryaks in Eurasia. It is believed that domestication started between Bronze Age-Iron Age. Siberian deer-owners also use the reindeer to ride on. (Siberian reindeer are larger than their Scandinavian relatives.) For breeders, a single deer-owner usually own some hundreds or up to thousands of animals. The numbers of Russian herders have been drastically reduced since the fall of the Soviet Union. The fur and meat is sold, which is an important source of income. Reindeer were introduced into Alaska near the end of the 19th century; they interbreed with native caribou subspecies there. Reindeer herders on the Seward Peninsula have experienced significant losses to their herds from animals following the wild caribou during their migrations. Reindeer Meat: Reindeer meat is popular in the Scandinavian countries. Reindeer meatballs are sold canned. Reindeer stew is the best-known dish in Lapland. In Alaska, reindeer sausage is sold locally to supermarkets and grocery stores. Reindeer antler is powdered and sold as a nutritional or medicinal supplement to Asian markets.

Caribou
Caribou








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™