Agriculture
Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
Watching out for vultures
New Gene Fights Potato Blight
Amphibians
Salamanders
Bullfrogs
Newts
Animals
Koalas, Up Close and Personal
Walktopus
Clone Wars
Behavior
Storing Memories before Bedtime
Baby Number Whizzes
GSAT Mathematics Quiz, Teaching Math, teaching anxiety
Birds
Ospreys
Mockingbirds
Nightingales
Chemistry and Materials
Sweeeet! The Skinny on Sugar Substitutes
Small but WISE
Scientist Profile: Wally Gilbert
Computers
Batteries built by Viruses
A New Look at Saturn's rings
A Classroom of the Mind
Dinosaurs and Fossils
An Ancient Spider's Web
Ferocious Growth Spurts
Dino Takeout for Mammals
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Undersea Vent System Active for Ages
A Great Quake Coming?
Island of Hope
Environment
A Change in Climate
Plastic Meals for Seals
Flu river
Finding the Past
Settling the Americas
Little People Cause Big Surprise
Prehistoric Trips to the Dentist
Fish
Parrotfish
Tuna
Pygmy Sharks
Food and Nutrition
A Taste for Cheese
Chew for Health
In Search of the Perfect French Fry
GSAT English Rules
Who vs. Whom
Who vs. That vs. Which
Adjectives and Adverbs
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
How are students placed after passing the GSAT exam
March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
GSAT Scholarship
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT Mathematics
Secrets of an Ancient Computer
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
Human Body
Dreaming makes perfect
Spit Power
Spitting Up Blobs to Get Around
Invertebrates
Dragonflies
Lice
Horseshoe Crabs
Mammals
Lion
Bobcats
Domestic Shorthairs
Parents
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
How children learn
Physics
Invisibility Ring
Thinner Air, Less Splatter
Road Bumps
Plants
Seeds of the Future
Springing forward
A Change in Leaf Color
Reptiles
Box Turtles
Cobras
Rattlesnakes
Space and Astronomy
Witnessing a Rare Venus Eclipse
A Star's Belt of Dust and Rocks
Icy Red Planet
Technology and Engineering
Drawing Energy out of Wastewater
A Micro-Dose of Your Own Medicine
Young Scientists Take Flight
The Parts of Speech
What is a Verb?
Pronouns
What is a Noun
Transportation
Troubles with Hubble
Robots on a Rocky Road
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Weather
Recipe for a Hurricane
A Change in Climate
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Add your Article

Between a rock and a wet place

Life is anything but a vacation for a climbing goby, a small fish that lives in Hawaii. Usually shorter than your thumb, this fish hatches in freshwater high in the hills and mountains. But soon afterward itís swept out to the salty sea by strong currents. About six months later, the fish begin the long journey back upstream to freshwater above waterfalls. Itís a good place for climbing gobies to breed because their natural predators ó mainly other fish ó canít get to them above the falls. During its return to the high freshwater streams, a climbing goby faces two deadly challenges. First, the fish has to swim through lowland waterways that are filled with predators ó larger fish that are looking for a goby snack. Then, a goby has to climb up rocky waterfalls, some of which are hundreds of feet tall. It clings to the slippery rocks with its mouth and a tiny sucker on its underside. Slowly, inch by inch, the fish climbs. Richard Blob, a scientist a Clemson University who studies gobies, says that ďin human terms, itís like a marathon.Ē Gobies of the same species have differently shaped bodies depending on where they live in the Hawaiian islands. Fish in some places are short and squat; others are taller from top to bottom. Blob and a team of scientists recently studied the bodies of climbing gobies to try to understand why this variation in body shape exists. Blob and his team placed climbing gobies from Hawaiiís Big Island in tanks containing sleeper fish, which prey on gobies. After the sleepers had caught half the gobies, the scientists measured the bodies of the surviving gobies. Those that were able to escape being eaten were taller than average. A taller body allows the fish to swim faster ó and thus avoid becoming a sleeperís dinner. If more tall-bodied gobies in a fish population survive, then their offspring will probably be tall as well. Thus, the gobies in that area will tend to be tall. But the story is more complicated. While having a taller body may help a goby avoid predators, it may be a big problem when the fish tries to start climbing. In an earlier study, scientists found that larger gobies struggle more than smaller gobies when trying to make it up a waterfall. Shorter, squatter gobies have an easier time clinging to the rocks and not getting washed away. So, scientists wonder, is it better to have a squat body (to get up the waterfall easier), or a large body (to avoid predators on the way to the waterfall)? The answer is: It depends on where a climbing goby lives. On the Big Island of Hawaii, where the waterfalls are close to the shore, gobies donít have to travel far through predator-infested waters. So scientists can expect to find smaller gobies there. But on the island of Kauai, the waterfalls are farther from shore ó suggesting that scientists will find more of the larger and faster gobies there. The story of the gobyís body shape is an example of evolution at work. Evolution is a process taking place in every organism, from gobies to humans. It explains how species change over a long period of time. What the scientists found is that natural selection, one of the basic parts of evolution, is helping to shape the gobiesí different body sizes according to where they live. In natural selection, animals with traits that help them live in their environment will survive and reproduce more than animals with less helpful traits. So in Hawaii, the type of goby you find depends on which island youíre studying.

Between a rock and a wet place
Between a rock and a wet place








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™